Computers and Integration SCIO, Inverurie

Useful technology tips

Computers are arguably the most important item in your life. You can use them to search for information, apply for jobs, work, chat, shop, bank, read the news, catch up on TV programmes and much more.

Unfortunately though, computers can also give you cause for concern. They can give you health problems, money worries and even data loss disasters.

Yes, you may find your computer useful, but just like your car, it needs looking after, regular servicing and new parts to keep it running well.

Without such maintenance, your computer will likely: slow down and show strange error messages, get choked up with unused files and software and get infected with nasty software. And you will likely have to: take it somewhere to get it fixed and spend a small fortune.

This web page seeks to offer technology advice and help you manage your computer and stay productive in the digital age, which is also an increasingly mobile age.

Staying home, embracing virtual work along with e-learning leveraging digital technologies is safer not to mention low carbon low in emissions also - the Scottish government made clear that since 2017 its intentions have been to train young children in digital technologies computer coding in particular teachers too. Simple language and clear IT advice for computers, mobiles and tablets suitable for teachers and children is available from Scottish charity Computers and Integration.

This website contains a great many links to over 50 or fifty great personal online services that you likely use every day also many great useful charities featured or linked to on the Links page.

Digital online course materials enable slow learners to pause, take a breath, learn at their own pace this directly enables the most vulnerable with complex needs to really make a life from themselves, do better, make progress. Clear communication, breaking complex topics down into simple language really helps children in particular especially when simple language is used - very young children often progress with language, comprehension and understanding.

Contents - universal also unisex technology skills education for Scottish Smart Cities and the Scottish government since 2017 wanted early years teachers to learn computer coding

Microphone input by a singer for example also electronic keyboard presses gets stored also in MIDI format during professional recording and music production in the studio also iPad first released during 2010 so people that went to University before this period likely did not have great opportunities for digital note taking during lecturers - Computers are usually shipped actually from overseas well nowt soldering of motherboards takes place in Britain - Sampling is connected to the frequency of sounds also linked to amplitude, decibels also to waveforms which are usually represented by a sine wave and sampling is also capturing sound files at a specified bit rate and converting for example from CD audio format to MP3

The Apple Pages app on an iPad with the large well spaced out keys with iPad held in horizontal mode actually enables efficient typing and the elipses or three dots menu enables export to TXT format also PDF format with the option to quickly email your files this really enables instant transfer of files.

Email has long been the easiest way to transfer files between mobile also laptops and desktop computers - the big benefit is that files get stored on an email server like a temporary buffer because after file transfer you can delete emails but an inbox actually gives a secure place to store files for later processing protected by a user name and password.

iPad big benefit is to be creative type text create content for example watch TV or online streamed video take notes, take notes also of lectures but iPad first released during 2010 so most people really did not have digital luxuries when attending lectures at University before this period and it is notes actually taken by students sometimes that can help with learning and study.

Consider also laptops were the computing devices before this period but early laptops were thick actually and also connecting to wired Ethernet networks involved inserting a thick credit card like device to connect an RJ45 jack which hooks into wired Ethernet networks from a traditional laptop computer.

Bear in mind early laptops shortly after the year 2000 or new millennium were limited in RAM memory to 128MB. Limited memory storage is really what drove anti virus and anti malware scanning along with disk defragging or reallocating hard drive blocks for greater efficiency.

Slow computers is what drove computer specialists to provide user support for example computer support focused for home users on making slow computers faster.

Often the big performance gains came from adding more physical RAM memory modules. Later millennial children those born in the run up to the new millennium will likely remember endlessly defragging computers to try and gain some minor performance boost. Really around 1996 there were 16 million people on the Internet.

Nowadays laptops also desktop computers tend to come with 4GB, 8GB and upwards of RAM memory pre-installed when a computer ships from the factory.

Computers are usually shipped actually from overseas well nowt soldering of motherboards takes place in Britain, although Mesh computer do build computers.

However Mesh Computers will likely source the parts from overseas, one of the better companies because their website actually allows users to really customise their build selecting what components they want and removing the components they definitely do not want to pay for.

Computers nowadays tend to not be built without or with nowt DVD drives and this is a mild inconvenience but Windows 7, 8, 10 and 11 can be installed from USB flash drive instead of from DVD.

Want to run older software or games on DVD? You can buy an external USB connected DVD drive.

Files in Pages app on an iPad can be renamed clicking at the top in the middle of the window, but try and rename a file you may lose the existing filename.

Try to rename and the existing filename is easily erased.

The noclobber Linux command prevents file overwriting but Apple devices use the iOS operating system to power iPads and iPhones.

MacOS is the name of the operating system for the Macintosh computer and Macs been around since 1984 actually there was the iMac among early models of the Macintosh desktop computer.

The main figure of Apple was Steve Jobs thin gaunt man had liver issues or problems but is partner in the early days was Steve Wozniak.

Early days of Apple there was rivalry between Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak of Apple and Paul Allan and Bill Gates of Microsoft.

Rivalry between the two tech giants like tech titans is symbolic of its a cruel world, a dog eat dog world - also around this time there was Britain's Alan Sugar entering the fray or computing world with Amstrad - his car in the Apprentice TV series is AMS1 or the number plate contains these characters this is a throwback to the famous Amstrad computer and also represents the main company Amstrad.

Apple for a long time really attracted professionals like artists and it still does in the present day along with music composers for creating songs and hooking up electronic keyboards and synthesisers for mixing music.

Macs built actually with acoustics in mind - open a sound application like the free open source Audicity on Windows 10 ten and you see analogue wave forms when sound is recorded - Audacity enables editing or cutting of sound samples.

In sound terminology sound files and editing them is known as sampling.

Sampling sound files is linked to multimedia. Sampling is connected to the frequency of sounds also linked to amplitude, decibels also to waveforms which are usually represented by a sine wave.

Sampling is done at bit rates like 8 bit, 16 bit and 32 bit. The higher the bit rate the better quality the sound file and there is mono sound versus stereo sound.

Mono is typically a single speaker like wireless bluetooth speakers that are just one big speaker.

The name stereo is traditionally been linked with two or two also dual speakers and this is linked to language development. Actually Bluetooth speakers with just one speaker can be quite good quality in real sound terms and actually may give off the impression of stereo sound. Really modern single speakers are really stereo sound not conventional mono sound with analogue waveforms but still Bluetooth speakers are still anologue but DAB digital radios are on the go - DAB for Digital Audio Broadcasting.

Sub woofers can provide deeper sound provide like base sound. Subwoofers may come with two speakers and comprise sound systems with multiple speakers more than two speakers for dual deep base sound.

Equalisers are often used with acoustic or sound systems. Sampling MP3 sound files at 32 bit is recommended over lesser bit rates but sound files are higher take up more space resulting in less space available on personal music players - rip compact discs at the highest bit rate or sampling interval from CDFS the audio file format with WAV the format to MP3 on CDs and you may not have sufficient space on your mobile device or personal music player for all your digital music files.

However really the solution is to store your digital music files on a separate SD card inserted in your phone as add on storage, certainly doing this may enable you to reset your smartphone such as a Samsung phone to factory defaults without erasing your personal MP3 or MP4 collection.

In music terms, acapello is the term or phrase for vocals or lyrics without music and instrumental is music like classical music without lyrics and soundtracks for films also movies may be classed as instrumentals.

Sampling is actually the process of converting form analogue to digital and sampling takes place with both sound files as well as images. Also quantisation is involved and is part of the process in both cases.

Quantisation in physics is also linked to quantum mechanics, but that is different again.

In image processing quantisation is the process of filling in pixels linked to spatial processing. Quantisation in image processing is linked actually to filling in pixels and making pixels represent a coded state for discrete cosine transform the statistical method of image compression.

This is used for low frequency or less frequently occurring patterns of data so less bits are stored and this is how lossy compression in JPEG works at a fundmental level.

Lossy compression involves throwing away repeating wasted unnecessary pixels this is how JPEG typically takes up less space compared to Bitmapped graphics also TIFF files.

Sound cards in computers usually have a port for a microphone this may be the pink port, the green port is typically for speakers.

Microphone input is analogue, but computers process zeroes and ones and in digital however most speakers out in analogue so sound cards work or function as anologue to digital converters and conversion is usually done on the fly in the real time transparent or invisible to the user.

An audio AUX cable typically green cable connectors at both ends can link a sound card in the green output port on the back of a desktop computer base unit to a USB wireless Bluetooth speaker sometimes also to an iPod also an iPhone so in a way users can connect by wired means their iPhone for example to their computer maybe to an AUX port in the car by the way of an AUX cable with two green connectors at both ends.

Electronic keyboards may connect to computers and MIDI is the file format that transfers sound files from one digital system to another.

MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface is the digital file format for recording and playback of music via a synthesiser.

MIDI is the file format for musicians recording music but music files are normally delivered for download to users via MP3 and MP4 format.

Music that is recorded or synthesised by an electronic keyboard is more than likely going to be stored in a MIDI file - note also microphone input by a singer for example gets stored also in MIDI format during professional recording and music production in the studio.

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E-bikes is power assisted travel - older drivers may remember when there was absolutely no power steering and the need to make complete turns of the wheel to turn a corner

Electric bikes is power assisted travel like power steering in cars.

Older cars had absolutely no power steering and older people in their 70s and older may recall turning the steering wheel right round just to turn a corner.

Many improvements made in the motoring world brought by power steering - younger drivers take for granted the ease to turn a steering wheel and increase speed on Scotland's roads. ABS is the Anti-Braking System assists braking but underneath it there is sophisticated electronics.

Power steering, ABS anti-braking system innovations actually - older cars had chokes and drivers pulled out a choke to start the engine also the ignition, gear sticks where longer, drivers went slower - tractors and heavy farm machinary been on the go for a long time, some people may have learnt on tractors before cars. Transport in Britain born out of the need to feed the population, move products from farm to supermarket with crops grown on the farms - second world war involved the Land Army and women working on the farms also raising the children.

From the world of motoring What is a Choke Valve? A choke valve or cable is designed to restrict the flow of air in the carburettor of an engine. This helps enrich the fuel-air mixture, improving the ability to start an engine in low temperature conditions. Scotland has historically suffered colder weather and there is Henry Ford, really one of the pioneers of the motor industry. Lifelong learning usually leads to the accumulation of knowledge making older persons valuable with wisdom - important to record knowledge gained in tangible forms and digital technology makes recording easier.

Chokes in DC motors and DC Direct Current linked to batteries - This reduces the sharp corners, or peaks, of the voltage waveform to rounded edges, protecting the motor from surges and the associated heating that occurs. Chokes important in electric cars, but cars so far may have been built without chokes.

Why use a choke? Why not just a big series resistor? A choke is used in place of a series resistor because the choke allows better filtering (less residual AC ripple on the supply, which means less hum in the output of the amp) and less voltage drop. An ideal inductor would have zero DC resistance. So chokes linked to EV vehicles since they rely on AC to DC conversion electricity supply to batteries used in electric vehicles.

A choke placed between the drive and the motor also helps to reduce electromagnetic interference from the cables and the possibility of reflected waves.

Chokes versus inductors - Inductors can generate magnetic fields and can also store energy within magnetic fields. A choke's primary purpose is to remove Alternating Current and pass DC current. Radiofrequency (RF) chokes rely on increasingly larger inductor sizes to block low-frequency signals.

Think Henry Ford and Ford Britain - we need to build the electric Ford Fiesta, an affordable, hatchback small car for families and small families think 2.4 children - that was a BBC sitcom and it was named after the size of a standard family in Britain around the time it was viewed or screend on British television. Ford Britain electric vehicles need a choke for harsh Scottish winters and snow in Aberdeenshire.

Movement actually emerged from the farming community in the 20th century and there was locomotives and trains in 20th century Britain the Steam train came first and they are often found in tourist attraction sites. Steam trains often dirtier also coal was also used historically in locomotive transport in Britain. Go to transport museum in Beamish in Northumberland.

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Google search terms for meanings or alternative words - training future journalists easier with open information

Type in define then a search term or word to get back a meaning to better understand.

Type in synonym then a word or search string to reveal alternative multiple words that mean the same thing. Understanding language composition actually can return useful meanings or alternative words from a specified vocabulary to train others. Actually engineers also computing professionals also surveyors can have a very technical vocabulary also architects, building, techies and those in the construction. Sharing information also publish may train others and advance industries result in more progress - often engineers though embrace problem solving, providing solutions though would be more helpful in the future. Children and teenagers are encourage to embrace problem solving - teachers often ask questions, set tasks and encourage problem solving and collaboration. The brightest minds may enquire this skills of enquiry being proactive rather than waiting around, but people might not like messages, the results or publsihing and sharing information.

The Scottish government that's the SNP Scottish National Party have indicated expressly teachers will be delivering computer coding from 2017 to young children - it seems to be basic type in co-ordinates, draw lines for primary children, but nowadays computer gaming can really teach a lot and also there many great apps for tablets for very young children like word building to encourage also foster language development. Teachers do some reluctant to embrace the app ecosystem with mobiles phones switched off at Hazlehead Academy. Video represents converged video with audio or sound better support for deaf or hard of hearing children also the visually impaired community - this is inclusive learning or education and BBC News videos came with subtitles starting 2020.

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Memoralising Facebook Timelines creating a digital headstone versus publishing regularly to say Hello world tell others a user is still alive

Complicating matters is that people that have once been alive that created pages on Facebook may have passed away - issues around loved ones not knowing passwords to mark or memoralise accounts can leave many Facebook profiles online even after someone has passed away. Contrast this with the many unmarked graves now in Ukraine and also from the past in Germany from the second world war also unmarked graves around Arnham in the Netherlands also, an historical war time town in central Dutch territory near the wartime Bridge Too Far in Deventer - some soldiers died in battle in conflict and have been gone forever, loved ones they were connected to may have gone through agonising grief the not knowing feeling for the remainder or the rest of their lives. Repatriation services can grip whole towns - think funerals cars going through streets in convoys, those have have died in conflict may come home in coffins draped in the Union Jack, a soverign colour that represents a country and actually soverignty often comes into its own through the Olympics and Commonwealth Games currently being held in Birmingham during August 2022.

Regularly publishing and posting informs others people are still alive - the most prolific posters actually drive the most attention, can engage communities in real debate, shape policies and the future for the better. Important to show fundamental respect for people, consider all views, be courteous and polite online actually this translates to offline as well. The big issue is that people outside passing in the street may seem friendly, but in closed spaces people can become agitated. People may behave differently when subject to abuse and actually medical staff are paid to be professional, responsible and care to the very end.

Good behaviour also known as good online etiquette not a new term - good etiquette stemmed from emoticons like showing emotion and smiley faces symbols that really defy explanation can evoke strong feelings and outpouring of grief. Most people have vocations, job roles, and social networks can connect people with those around them, make it easy and efficient but actually HTML the web page creation language is easy to learn and web page templates enable copying of standard page code making it easier, faster for the average user to publish and share information that helps in a frenzy.

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Discharging static when building computers protects sensitive parts also components

Building a computer inserting a motherboard the core circuitboard need often for computer specialists to discharge static touch a painted metal surface.

Computer support technicians may wrap a velcro strap around their wrist attached to a mat to discharge static - this is one option another option is to touch a computer's metal base unit. Both methods discharge or transfer static and protect computer components which can be small and sensitive - RAM memory can also be sensitive and often RAM memory modules need a firm push into a computer's motherboard.

What is the relationship between discharging static and velcro? Velcro can lose its stickiness but friction with velcro can generate a charge or in the case of building a computer velcro linked to a mat can discharge static.

Static is linked to electricity shocks - If you carry a metal object like a coin, key or paper clip around with you, and touch it to something metal in your house, any electrons stuck to your body will flow through the metal and away, preventing the jumping effect that causes a shock. Having your house keys or car key on you, holding them can prevent you from giving your son or daughter an electric shock with the transfer of energy when you craddle or hold them.

Rubber is conductive and prevents static - it is rubber mats that prevent static discharge not Velcro even though Velcro may be used in the building of a computer.

In science there are two broad terms - conductors and insulators both are opposites but opposites can attract in Physics.

Conductors allow electricity to flow freely through it, whereas an insulator is a material that does not allow electricity to pass through. In conductors, some of the electrons are free electrons and can move. Copper, aluminium, steel and seawater are conductors and BP and Shell looking into seawater powered cars or vehicular transport that is more sustainable - think British Steel from Sheffield and the Full Monty unemployed Steel workers who started taking their clothes off to entertain. The Steel industry wound down and Sheffield was left run down for a significant period needed money and investment to evolve transform the economy and upskill or reskill workers and manual labourers.

Magnets have a north and south pole.

Opposites attract in magnets - The opposite is true when the same poles of two magnets are put in contact, if two south poles are put together (or if two north poles are put together) the magnets will repel one another.

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Ultra High Frequency (UHF) signals linked to Infrared used in TV transmitters also TV remote control and the different divergent technologies that represent evolution from 1G to 5G the mobile data signals

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) signals linked to Infrared used in TV transmitters also TV remote controls.

1G Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), 824 MHz - 894 MHz, NFM, FM, FSK.

2G CDMA (IS‑95), 850 MHZ, AM, QPSK.


4G LTE Network Long Term Evolution Network. Also known as 4G LTE Data and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). Data service for wireless consumer devices. 700 to 2,200 MHz. OFDM, PSK and QAM worldwide nowdays.

5G new radio cellular network. 5G cellular, also known by 3GPP 5G NR (new radio), for example is a newly released cellular standard that allows for backwards compatibility with 4G LTE, and will allow for several gigabits of connection speeds, (up to 10-100Gb) per second. This is the 600 MHz downlink band for the new standard. 5G uses OFDM, PSK also QAM.

CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications. As the term implies, CDMA is a form of multiplexing, which allows numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available bandwidth.

PSK is Pre-Shared Key (PSK) and it is really a client authentication method that uses a string of 64 hexadecimal digits and hexadecimal is the base 16 system from the 16 times table, or as a passphrase of 8 to 63 printable ASCII characters, to generate unique encryption keys for each wireless client.

QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is a method of combining two amplitude modulation (AM) signals into a single channel. This approach helps double its effective bandwidth. QAM is also used with pulse AM (PAM) in digital systems, like wireless applications.

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The 7 seven stages of the software development lifecycle explained also the stages are Analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing, Documentation, Evaluation and Maintenance also Running totals in the case of a supermarket can be linked to quantity of items or products also this can be linked to shopping baskets and the total amount of money displayed for goods, also running totals may involve counters that are first set or initialised to zero and loops of blocks of code may be used

  1. HTML ol organised list element with li list element produces a numbered ordered sequenced list in HTML web page code
  2. Analysis - seek to understand the problem, issues and talk to the client
  3. Design - the planning stages for a computer program
  4. Implementation - translating or converting plans into an algorithm actually which is a set of steps actually, a series of procedures that get coded using a specific computer programming language like Pascal, COBOL, Cee plus plus perhaps Python
  5. Testing think playing computer games some people do this play games for a living to test scenarios, find areas for improvement, weaknesses in computer code - running programs with test data also to check software performs as expected. Test data can check ranges for example, lead onto checking data for validity to ensure that what someone wishes to find out is more likely to be obtained for real - actually form field validation in respect of web forms and JavaScript on focus controls for form elements can prove useful here - the onFocus JavaScript event handler to put a cursor in a specific online form field.
  6. Documentation - user guides and technical guides can help users but actually writing up problems, issues, workarounds can educate others in teams share knowledge pass it around advance progress at a faster rate. Important to focus on solutions also targeted solutions and highlight what problems they solved.
  7. Evaluation - checks to make sure end products and finished compiled software applications meet user desires and client needs - the client the person who pays for software may not be the end user and issues that affect the end user may affect the clients bottom line also profit and profitability.
  8. Maintenance - this is central to computer code and maintenance represents the do it again iterative nature may also be called looping of writing computer code, going back to the design stage after writing code and testing in order to alter designs and change computer code. Loops can be typical of computer code to make the process of coding more efficient - think independent blocks of code being brought together. Loops can bring more order and control - alternative events may occur when loops are broken and this is typically signified by clauses of computer code in the else statement of if then else endif.

Iterative nature of software development lifecycle like do it again involves overlap in stages and each stage feeds into each other. Iteration or do it again means repetition in a sense like repeating going back to a previous stage to make changes and improvements like in a design stage of a computer program with the view to changing computer code.

Perhaps in practice computer programmers may change code without changing designs it is easy enough to get swept away coding, but actually without changing designs changes in computer code may be less noticed and less understood and this could cause problems later when errors crop up and there is a need to debug and test. Diagrams can tell a story very well combine pictures or charts with words, but step by step explanations can really help others understand.

Computer programs may require different hardware capabilities like memory capacity, buffer allocation, processing speed also buffers can be linked to memory and also there are input and output devices. Input output can be linked to interrupts - keystrokes can be captured actually by hackers think keystroke logging and usernames and passwords can be stolen.

Consider a basic algorithm for making pancakes.

The ingredients is the inputs to the recipe.

The method is the statements that describe the process of making pancakes - statements usually step by step broken down using stepwise refinement like 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3. Computer programs need to be logical describe how to solve a problem.

The result is the outputs of the recipe - this is what people expect to happen. Normally in a computer program output appears on a computer display, on your smartphone screen in the case of apps for mobiles.

A tried and tested receipe like an algorithm or set of instructions can be used time and time again to produce reliable results.

Computer programs may involve initialising counters to zero and also a counter may increment by one after a block of code this is a running total. A running total may be used with a block of code that works in a looping fashion and be linked to a shop or supermarket. Running totals in the case of a supermarket can be linked to quantity of items or products also this can be linked to shopping baskets and the total amount of money displayed for goods.

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It is absolutely 2022 and artifical intelligence first mooted as a concept in 1968 film called 2001 A Space Odyssey - heuristics which is the foundation for anti-virus software scanning and heuristics linked to probability also to statistics like hash algorithms or hash codes also heuristics are rules of thumb in a broad sense for making immediate judgments that can facilitate problem-solving and probability judgments also heuristics like traits of a virus used to spot rogue software patterns, detect malicious software or computer code with bad intentions

HAL 9000 is a fictional artificial intelligence character and the main antagonist in Arthur C. Clarke's Space Odyssey series.

First appearing in the 1968 film named, called or titled 2001: A Space Odyssey, HAL is the name for the Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) and is link a sentinal or artificial general intelligence computer also a smart computer system that controls the systems of the Discovery One spacecraft and interacts with the ship's astronaut crew.

While part of HAL's computer hardware the physical devices humans or users touch or interact with is shown toward the end of the film, HAL like a computer bot is mostly depicted as a camera lens containing a red or yellow dot, with such units located throughout the ship.

HAL 9000 is voiced by Douglas Rain in the two feature film adaptations of the Space Odyssey series.

HAL speaks in a soft, calm voice and a conversational manner, in contrast to the crewmen, David Bowman and Frank Poole.

HAL used a human voice over so actually it was friendlier than some computer voices nowadays.

So, in a nutshell, artificial intelligence is not a new concept actually - it has been around for a long time and really emerged at the cinema in 1968.

HAL used heuristics which is the foundation for anti-virus software scanning - heuristics linked to probability also to statistics like hash algorithms or hash codes also heuristics are rules of thumb in a broad sense for making immediate judgments that can facilitate problem-solving and probability judgments.

Heuristics actually is the process really of matching virus code in an antivirus application and detecting viruses - heuristics like traits of a virus used to spot rogue software patterns, detect malicious software or computer code with bad intentions desgined to cause mayhem and wreck havoc.

Many synonyms are linked to words and terms in the English language - possible to draw connotations between different meanings within the field of computing and in separate fields - actually the study of linguistics is actually important to computing. Linguistics linked also to natural language processing is a broad sense.

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Cellular overlapping an important consideration for 5G networks with need for masts also base stations every 1000ft unlike 3G every 40 miles - 5G is an essential mobile technology for the future if mobile users want seamless coverage and fast mobile data everywhere without interruption

Cellular overlapping an important consideration for 5G networks with need for masts also base stations every 1000ft unlike 3G every 40 miles - 5G is an essential mobile technology for the future if mobile users want seamless coverage and fast mobile data everywhere without interruption

A cell is the geographic area that is covered by a single base station in a cellular network for example a 3G, 4G and 5G mast and cells must always overlap. Bear in mind the range for a 3G mast is 40 miles, the range for a 4G mast is 10 miles and the range for a 5G mast is 1000ft.

5G masts absolutely no planning restrictions in the UK United Kingdom laid down in statute at the UK Parliament level - UK ministers usually listen to and source evidence, this is what goes on behind the scenes.

TCP/IP is the rules that govern the Internet for the sending and receiving of data, a universal support standard and actually it underpins the data world.

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Configure EIGRP routing protocol on a Cisco router and in computing there are really four types of data types - there are integers, boolean true false states or Yes / No, real numbers and characters - operands are the four standard mathematical symbols for addition, subtraction, division and multiplication symbols. Multiplication symbol usually an asterisk also like a wildcard and sometimes represents any character also Running totals actually can increment by one for example for a small set of instructions like a procedure or peice of computer code which can be linked to a loop to bring control add up for supermarket checkouts

Router(config)# mode this is the general router configuration mode on a Cisco router - it is the user prompt in a terminal screen for a Telnet session accessed after the enable command is entered with a password.

The EIGRP routing protocol is linked to autonomous systems by way of an ID or identification or reference number - to enable the routing protocol the following command is entered:

router eigrp autonomous-system-id (this is actually a numerical number or integer like 109 for example. Significant to note in computing there are really four types of data types - there are integers, boolean true false states, real numbers and characters. In computer programs there are also expressions which may be strings of data.

Typical Expression - a combination of operators, constants and variables.

An expression may consist of one or more operands, and zero or more operators to produce a value for example a+b c s-1/7*f. Operands are special symbols maybe addition, subtraction, division and multiplication symbols. Multiplication symbol usually an asterisk also like a wildcard and sometimes represents any character.

A real number, in mathematics, is a quantity that can be expressed as an infinite decimal expansion for example with two decimal places - long winded numbers usually rounded to two decimal places. Exponential numbers usually reference the number 3 three and can be really long never ending, for example lots of 3s after a decimal point.

Autonomous system number that identifies the routes to the other EIGRP routers. It is also used to tag the routing information.

There are two types of data and data is not information - data is meaningless. Taking ownership of data enables human analysis and discussions to produce meaningful insights. Qualitative is like comments and strings and Quantitative data, which are further classified into four types of data: nominal, ordinal, discrete, and Continuous.

The Microsoft Access database has AutoNumber for automatically producing an ID for a field in a database - this really is like a running total useful for a computer program linked to a supermarket or small convenience store for example.

Running totals actually can increment by one for example for a small set of instructions like a procedure or peice of computer code which can be linked to a loop and a looping mechanism which can bring control and structure - this is like a construct actually, provides definition to data enables an ordered, sequenced flow of computer code instruction.

It is visual cues actually built-in to software applications that stimulate recall about how to educate others on how to build also use software applications, but also start writing and describing it forces people to explain also justify - through this process others can learn. Explaining opens up learning actually and writings provide a tangible means of recording information and instructional support.

Short Text, Long Text, Number and Long Number along with Date / Time, Currency and Yes / No that are the basic data types of Microsoft Access. Yes / No is like boolean states akin to True False.

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network for automating routing decisions and configuration.

The EIGRP transport mechanism uses a mix of multicast and unicast packets, using reliable delivery when necessary.

Network address starting 224 is a multicast address.

A multicast address identifies a group of hosts sharing the same address. Multicast addresses are not assigned to a device, rather, a device proceeds to listen for and receive traffic destined to a multicast group that it has joined by some process. Multicasting uses the UDP data packet or datagram message protocol - UDP is the connectionless transport protocol for IP data packets.

224.0. 0.22 is a multicast address. Multicast is used for IP addresses that can be subscribed to. A multicast IP address can be subscribed to by multiple network interfaces and will be routed by routers in a special way. This way you can create an IP address with multiple recipients. Multicast is send from one computer or network host to many computers or recipients or receivers usually other computers with real human users.

A simple example of multicasting is sending an e-mail message to a mailing list. Teleconferencing and videoconferencing also use multicasting.

Multicast protocols such as UDP/IP and RTP/IP are used to broadcast data to any number of receiving devices.

Unlike unicast TCP data, if a packet is not received, there is no mechanism or attempt to verify that and resend the packet. Multicast is widely used for video and audio data.

Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network standard designed for transmitting audio or video data that is optimized for consistent delivery of live data. It is used in internet telephony, Voice over IP and video telecommunication.

This autonymous system number in an EIGRP network for Cisco router configuration in a console window or session is a 16-bit value between 1 and 65,535.

The value chosen must be the same for all routers within a given EIGRP routing domain.

65,535 is the number of hosts on any given class B network - class B networks typically used for private networks or for medium sized organisations. 65,535 network hosts or users in a given network segment in the class B network address segment. 254 hosts typically in a class C private network per network segment and likewise 16,277,214 hosts or users around 16 million in a network segment for a large Class A network.

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Images have dimentions window size, image resolution and dpi or colour bit depth - also compact cameras may come with inadequate flash memory and you may need a microSD or SD card for more capacity to store images important to look at tech specs - Computer displays RGB versus decimal image representation also mixing primary colours to form secondary and tertiary colours in primary education

Images have dimentions like 960x720, also horizontal and vertical resolution like 96 dpi and bit depth like 24 bits.

Also compact cameras in the not so distant past - go back to early 2014 - sometimes came with limited storage and this restricted users from choosing large high resolution file sizes. This meant when images were displayed after being captured, the viewable screen or window may not have stretched across the screen or filled the viewable area completely. Stretching images is known as image processing - tweaking images distorting them is image manipulation like Photoshop an image is a catchphrase or buzzword familiar to many. Stretching images may result in quality being reduced. There is also anti-aliasing fonts and ClearType.

Anti-aliasing fonts can improve clarity on screen - for Windows XP users had to click a checkbox to make font type faces easier to read. What is anti-aliasing? The simple description of anti-aliasing is that it makes fonts display with smooth curves and angles, not jagged, low resolution looking edges. So if anti-aliased is smooth, the opposite, hard edged fonts would make sense to be called aliased. However, the better term is bit-mapped.

Zooming in and magnifying font faces or text can usually reveal jagged edges - this also impacts clarity of text in respect of magnified text.

Cameras coming with limited flash memory storage built-in restricted users from choosing large high resolution file sizes, and this thus had a knock on effect in terms of the file size, also the window size (the screen viewable size from a magnified display like a computer monitor) or the resolution size of photos.

Compact cameras actually sometimes require users to buy Micro SD cards or SD cards for more storage because the built-in flash memory is not adequate in file size.

Always important to pay attention to file storage in respect of tech specs for electronic products like cameras in respect of electrical retailers like but there is also and

Computer displays RGB versus decimal image representation

Going back to image dimentions, right-click in Windows 10 ten on a JPEG image for example to reveal resolution sizes like 960x720, dpi or dots per inch and bit depth like 24 bits or 32 bits - 8 eight bits known as monochrome or black and white. More dots per inch increased the number of pixels in an image, improves quality, file size and also gives more colour.

Computer colour displays are known typically as RGB Red Green Blue and these can be represented both in hexadecimal digits and also in decimal for example 255,255,255 equals white and 0,0,0 equals black in decimal notation. In RGB hexadecimal #000000 is black and #ffffff is white - these codes often used in HTML web page code. The first two hexadecimal digits like ff represents red, the second two ff reresents green and the last two ff represents blue.

RGB differs from primary school primary colours which are red, yellow and blue.

Three Secondary Colors from primary education include Orange, Green, Violet. The Six Tertiary Colors are known as Red-Orange, Yellow-Orange, Yellow-Green, Blue-Green, Blue-Violet, Red-Violet, which are formed by mixing a primary with a secondary.

Making secondary colours in primary education

Making tertiary colours in primary education

Hue, saturation, brightness and contrast

In colours for computer display there is hue and saturation.

Hue is like share or tint - a gradation or variety or variation of a color, a tint or shade - pale hues.

Saturation is like the bucket fill tool in a computer painting program - Saturation is the process or state that occurs when a place or thing is filled completely with people or things, so that no more can be added. Note that transparency can be altered for filled boxes for example often using a sliding window.

Brightness is how vibrant or colourful an image is and brightness can be adjusted for images, but also the brightness of screens can be altered on small screens like mobiles but also on computer monitors and also on large screen televisions.

Hue, saturation and brightness are the main elements that affect an image, but there is also contrast also. You might struggle to understand the difference between brightness and contrast.

Brightness increases the overall lightness of the image—for example, making dark colors lighter and light colors whiter.

Contrast can be defined as The difference in brightness between light and dark areas of an image. Contrast determines the number of shades in the image. A low-contrast image retains detail but tends to lack dimension and looks soft.

An image with normal contrast retains detail and dimension, and looks crisp.

Shades of images and contrast since it is linked to detail is also linked to lossy compression for JPEG images. For example, white pixels are like empty so really less bits are needed to represent a pixel so space in real world physical file size terms can be saved useful for sending visual data for more efficiently over computer networks.

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Facebook limits number of video uploaded to 35-40 within 24 hours or one calendar day - testing technology to the limits like what Channel 5's The Gadget Show did can find weaknesses also areas for improvement and also discover where there are service limitations to the detriment of users. Also, testing computing platforms can explore future avenues for growth and new markets also for video sharing new audience potential - scope for utilising Facebook to break areas like a large City into smaller sections or communities for sharing video and news

Video is more interesting for meaningful landmarks and events that define moments in time, but actually in most towns and Cities events can happen every day and also the landscape constantly changes or evolves with new emerging developments - also coastal videos of the seaside can be awe inspiring, waves crashing against rocks can bring a sense of calmness and serenity improve mood of users also maybe linked with improved mental health and better cognitive abilities at work or improved focus for students studying.

Shorter video segments are better actually for meaningful also interesting scenes that define events also but longer videos can be useful to convey audio or sound also a message worth imparting to stakeholders including a target audience or a commentary with video supporting multimedia convergence.

Facebook has limits to prvent spam - actually most users cannot upload more than 35-40 videos in a 24 hour period.

Shorter video segments can be useful, upload quickly over computer networks making shorter video segments better on slower networks but also improved video compression algorithms and ratios may actually enable longer video segments to be uploaded faster in a shorter space of time.

For video descriptions, better to focus on Who, What, Where, Why and How to really create concise information snippets to both inform, educate and entice users.

New technology also known as bleeding technology and testing technology to the limits can find weaknesses also areas for improvement and also discover where there are service limitations to the detriment of users. Also, testing computing platforms can explore future avenues for growth and new markets also for video sharing new audience potential. Facebook has a user aimed platform is not ideal for commercial video sharing market sectors. Facebook always said it would be free to end users and Facebook is supported by advertising, but Facebook is a good platform for education.

There is actually scope for utilising Facebook to break areas like a large City into smaller sections or communities like regions or regional areas with people uploading videos covering a small or specific area with perhaps co-ordination at a higher level - for example one Facebook page could have a videos focused on a particular area, but a bigger commercial media organisation could have a website linking to social media videos to provide more visual content that shows people in communities what is going on that is also educational and informs with newsworthy content.

The big issue is people can object to shared social media web links or videos, so web links may become inactive or not functional so there would be a need for a larger media organisation to maintain links to previously uploading videos. Really this is always an ongoing challenge - maintaining web links online in an online space. Broken links do happen because domain names can go unregistered - people and organisations can change their domain name and organisations can flounder, companies can go bust, people can retire - people are naturally fickle in a sense prone to human failures such as illness but there is also corruption from time to time.

In a nutshell, Facebook limits number of videos uploaded to 35-40 within 24 hours or one calendar day - testing technology to the limits like what Channel 5's The Gadget Show did can find weaknesses also areas for improvement and also discover where there are service limitations to the detriment of users. Also, testing computing platforms can explore future avenues for growth and new markets also for video sharing new audience potential.

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Need to have interest to develop skills, keep up to date and invest in education also e-books electronic publications from Amazon can be competitively priced and cost effective with absolutely no VAT applied

Interest in keeping skills up-to-date actually comes from passions and often businesses the commercial sector are often more focused - this is the linked to profit and profitability driving ordinary workers forward.

Those with an interest in technology may self-study and rely on books and ebooks out of own pocket in the digital age keeping up with current developments along the way and actually those out of work may not actually have sufficient personal funds.

Amazon Kindle actually is a digital service really a backend that enables purchase of ebooks - digital ebooks usually cheaper than paperback and hardware also ebooks have no VAT or Value Added Tax attached.

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Overlapping cellular coverage and base stations also frequency spectrums and auctions, also exponential growth with IP version 6 six and twos complement for binary signal encoding over a physical medium or channel

A network for wireless communications is comprised of a large number of base stations to efficiently use radio spectrum to cover the service area. Geographically separated frequencies may be reused many times.

Base stations emit cellular coverage and cells must overlap and radio spectrum is involved to emit also project outwardly electromagnetic signals or radio waves.

Radio spectrum has been auctioned off in the past for digital purposes from analgoue frequencies.

Radio stations in the UK are still on analogue despite digital radios on the market and radio stations broadcasting digital radio in the UK - lots of older cars with analogue radio. Massive challenge to convert all drivers and homes to digital radio stations but doing so could free spectrum make more available for digital services and digital radio also to acoommodate 5G.

Exponential - a term from computing originally characterized by or being an extremely rapid increase (as in size or extent) an exponential growth rate. Exponential growth exhausted the supply of IP version 4 IP addresses and this led to IP version 6 addresses, the 128-bit IP addresses that are long winded and often resemble hexadecimal numbers and digits. Exponential involves a variable in an exponent 10x and is an exponential expression.

Twos complement - Two's complement is the way every computer chooses to represent integers. To get the two's complement negative notation of an integer, you write out the number in binary. You then invert the digits, and add one to the result.

The Twos complement is a system in which the negative numbers are represented by the two's complement of the absolute value. The Two's complement is the way the computers understand and represent integers.

In a two's complement, the most significant bit is 1 one, so the value represented is negative.

Twos-complement is linked to negative numbers - the temperature scale can run from very cold minus temperatures to hot temperatures like 50C. Computers actually must be kept cold for optimal functioning so this really is the basis for understanding negative numbers in computing and twos complement.

From Wikipedia actually a great source of technical definitions but actually important to also connect the dots between seemingly random pieces of information and this is the higher cognitive skills - The system therefore allows addition of negative operands without a subtraction circuit or a circuit that detects the sign of a number. Moreover, that addition circuit can also perform subtraction by taking the two's complement of a number which only requires an additional cycle or its own adder circuit. To perform this, the circuit merely operates as if there were an extra left-most bit of 1.

Important also to be selective when choosing information and to go along with the trend of the times. The trend is STEM Science Technology Engineering and Maths - think manufacturing or building of EV vehicles or Electric vehicles and such cars for example have integrated sophisticated electronic circuits which are often soldered in Eastern countries also China.

Twos complement on Wikipedia -'s_complement

Struggling to understand Twos complement from a mathematical perspective actually from the instructions on WikiPedia but by writing the topic can get broken down - English teacher Margaret Stevenson from Westhill Academy always considered a good school (this is the affluent aspect which usually benefits people) actually argued English is more important than Maths. Actually English is just as important as is computing as maths, English actually and writings along with sharing can help others to understand a complex topic and computing is a complex technical topic so English might actually be more important just slightly not a fundamental aspect of STEM, but NASA do technical report writing.

Chinese people may draw diagrams and these can be more visual easy to understand can help with self-assembly for DIY and building products after purchase but still books written to accompany products in Argos usually have writings plus pictures this is actually an aspect of multimedia which is text, static images, video, animation as well as sound - video is the converged medium with sound more suitable to helping the visually impaired, the deaf and hard of hearing - older people may have these cognitive limitations.

Products sold in Argus may actually have technical authoring instructions written by foreigners like people working in China.

Engineers tend to not have great communication skills - this was obvious from the language used in Cisco computer network curriculum.

Breaking topics down and explaining also known as analysing is how real progress is made in technology topics.

From Wikipedia on twos complement - The last two bits of the carry row (reading right-to-left) contain vital information: whether the calculation resulted in an arithmetic overflow, a number too large for the binary system to represent (in this case greater than 8 bits). An overflow condition exists when these last two bits are different from one another. As mentioned above, the sign of the number is encoded in the MSB of the result.

Overflows can be linked to buffers and memory architectures linked also to the design of circuitboards and processors. What use is Maths actually to computing without seeking to understand the fundamental key mathematical building blocks in relation to the architecture and the design of microchips? The best way to help the manufacturers is with writings to explain and by drawing diagrams to help to connect the dots, help the manufacturers to build real physical world products. This is the big advantage of diagrams and also 2-Dimensial vector drawings and the PNG file format without royalties, the older Animated GIF file format was proprietary where someone was paid a royalty or money having invented the standard since paying everyone a fair rate is fundmental.

In simple term 2's Complement is a way to store negative numbers in Computer Memory - it is often cold in outer space up in orbit in the celestral galaxy.

The binary number 1111 1111 is equal to 0000 0001 and this represents minus one. Twos complement inverts numbers is like the opposite at the fundamental level of binary where Assembly language is used which is often used to write device drivers to make physical touching hardware devices work with computer operating systems such as Windows 10 also Windows 11.

Understanding Twos Complement comes from Google's interpretations on the main search page linked to Important to discuss problems, issues, workarounds facing people and actually be forward thinking helpful write up the solutions more than anything else. Explaining processes actually also problems and issues helps foster greater progress in the long term also helps everyone to understand which may lead to more sympathy and understanding also tolerance and acceptance.

Twos complement linked to binary signal encoding and Manchester encoding over computer networks on the physical medium and Global Packet Radio Service can be quite slow nowadays like 2Mbps and actually this data rate or speed was considered fast 20 years ago in the North-East of Scotland an always on data connection which enabled phone calls on the same phone line by means of Asynchrous Digital Subscriber Line technology faster downloads over uploads also known as ADSL.

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Computer program version numbers and stepwise refinement - The Linux command ./configure is often used in connection with building software executables or compiling from source code in the Linux world also there are useful commands make and make install

Maths may be useful for computer programmers - maths and logic go hand in hand, maths logic useful for writing sequential, ordered in series, procedural computer programming also with stepwise refinement this is where steps are broken down like 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 - computer program versions and versioning work like this. Google Chrome Version number at present is 103.0.5060.134 (Official Build) (64-bit) - recall Internet Explorer 6 six was dominant for a long time as a web browser.

Procedural program code normally executed in sequence - this may also be referred to as parsing, but also source code can be compiled line by line through a process known as compiling in Linux with the view or aim to executing a software program. The Linux command ./configure is often used in connection with building software executables or compiling from source code in the Linux world also there are useful commands make and make install. Running an exeutable on Linux usually involves dot forward slash like ./

Certainly dot forward slash or ./ is used to execute software source code in the Linux world.

Building or compiling source code in the Linux world has a specific order or sequence of operations or operands of command sequence - ./configure is first then make command followed by make install command. The pre-determined sequence or order of events or command syntax is important.

Stepwise refinement is based or really stems from the iterative do it again process of software development. Do it again refers to the looping nature of the software development lifecycle - for example Testing or Debug may necessitate need to go back to design stage and make changes also to computer code for improved performance also for security enhancements or create new functional aspects in software program.

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Easy convert iPad HEIC images using Dropbox online web based interface - Elipses or three dots is really the hallmark most common element of a computing user interface. Elipses really signifies more information is coming or will follow, elipses or three dots usually reveals more menu options also Microsoft Word documents well supported enabling writing of online documents within the Dropbox online interface, for Google Docs need to log-in from Dropbox

HEIC images from Apple devices such as the iPhone and iPad might not open on Windows 10 ten without installing codecs or special software like a software viewer, but possible to easily convert HEIC images to JPEG and PNG images using Dropbox the file storage also the cloud online storage service.

Select a checkbox for an images, then from the menu bar right-hand side select the three dots menu which signifies more - three dots is called elipses (this is from Higher English Westhill Academy - also learnt parathensis played Who Wants To Be A Millionaire reading questions a quiz book amongst family, parathensis also known as quotes or quotation marks - asking questions taught grammar skills also, lead also to acquired knowledge firing questions at parents, this person like to ask question since answers were unknown but Google opened up possibilities to learn and discover information).

Recovered video held long-term from 1995 and shared in the recent past actually shows this person as a young Scottish loon asking his grandmother a question such as which river is the longest in the world - the Nile or the Amazon? This person's grandmother could not answer the question, but great to see grandparents alive - video really brings back positive memories and the persona of a person, always important to cherish loved ones.

Select Save As then JPEG or PNG pick an image format to create an instant copy in the Dropbox file or online storage server in the cloud. Aspiring millionaire really and a millionare is one million pounds - over a million is a multi-millionare think Bill Gates Microsoft founder and main man behind the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation focused on Africa.

Actually when at Aberdeen College when the rest of the class from school were in sixth year with this student forced to leave since zero subjects and levels were suitable, this then student put down Millionaire for ambition for a yearbook the sixth year class were making. There will be many copies of this circulating amongst this student's year group or school year.

Definition of elipses - a sudden leap from one topic to another. or marks or a mark such as indicating an omission (as of words) or a pause.

Elipses or three dots is really the hallmark of a computing user interface - elipses one of the most common user interface elements in a computing system. Elipses really signifies more information is coming or will follow, elipses or three dots usually reveals more menu options, maybe considered tweaks or settings or customisations for a user and may lead to actions. Windows 98 was on the go when word elipses was discovered - actually websites were not really common actually, accessing the Internet was slow, not done often and by means of a dial-up 56Kbps modem in the North-East of Scotland.

From the Dropbox user interface, click Create, then Word Document or Google Docs. Word documents work efficiently and quickly within the Dropbox main online interface. Google Docs requires another log-in using Google services so Dropbox works better with Microsoft services, well a Docx document gets created within Dropbox file storage online in the cloud - Microsoft Word documents better supported by Microsoft at the present time Sunday 07 August 2022.

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Always important to check your current location within a file system before transferring files to ensure copying of the latest versions instead of overwriting newer content with older files also FileZilla is the free FTP File Transfer Protocol client Windows 10 software available for download from to enable web page upload from client user computer to web server

Losing context and a sense of perspective is easy, finding yourself in the wrong folder and uploading older web pages on local drives also local computers may happen if you are not careful - always important to check your current location within a file system before transferring files.

FileZilla is the free FTP File Transfer Protocol client Windows 10 software available for download from Left-hand side pane displays local web pages or computer files. The two dots icon of a folder at the top of a lower level folder may go back up the file system tree-level hierarchy.

Double-Clicking two dots multiple times can take a user back to the top-most level of folder hierarchies and on Windows 10 the top most level may look like User (or specific name of a user), All Users, Default User, Default and Public. This same folder arrangement is available from Windows Explorer within This PC for the main drive with Windows 10. Double-click your username and within your designated username folder you will find Documents, Pictures, Music, Videos folders and also possibly a Dropbox and OneDrive folder.

Actually go the top most level can enable copying of nested folders and files most efficiently to USB Universal Serial Bus external drives.

However, in Windows Explorer with reference to Dropbox folders, right-click on a folder and click either Make available offline or go to Smart sync, Make available offline depending on your version of Dropbox.

Recent updates to Dropbox enable making folders offline easier without having to go via a sub-menu such as Smart sync. Offline folders enable file download in the background and facilitate transfer or copying of files to local devices for data back-up and data duplication.

From a FileZilla open application window, it is possible to drag and drop files between two left and right panes to upload files and folders to a web server after a user has entered a hostname, username and password at the top. FTP usually uses port 21 for connections between a client computer typically a user computer and a web server.

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Zoning, Google Maps, map search, finding a street and the DNS name service and zone files

Zoning in on a Google search map - can be difficult sometimes to focus, find a street when you are familiar with an area due to a maze of streets, but there is the search box. Actually parks being marked as green and hospital sites as pink can actually help parents for green spaces to take their children for a walk and for everyone to find essential medical facilities or hospital services.

Important to make a note of issues people encounter - this is what may help others, promote or champion digital technology and lead to improvements. Documenting workaround and issues can be time-consuming especially writing it up, but background syncing of photos and videos to online and cloud digital services while writing can actually make good use of time, but for many high in file size video files, uploading video files may take a while, important actually to offload photos and videos from phones and tablets on regular basis to avoid becoming frustrated with technology. More frequent data transfer can enable users to learn techniques to help master or better interact with digital technology.

The DNS Domain Name System service has zone files. A Domain Name System zone file (DNS zone file) is a simple text file which is automatically bundled with DNS records.

The basic or simple text file contains all the necessary information of all resources or name service records for the particular domain in question - a computer typically references a primary and secondary name server to map a domain name to an IP address. Real people can more easily remember domain names such as, the nation's most trusted broadcaster.

A zone file is a text file that describes a DNS zone. The BIND file format is the industry preferred zone file format and has been widely adopted by DNS server software used really in the Linux world and certainly on Ubuntu. The format is defined in RFC (Request For Comment) 1035.

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Berkeley, BIND and MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseware

BIND is Berekely Internet Name Daemon - daemons are the hallmark of Linux server services, for example the Apache web server is known as the httpd daemon. BIND is for DNS the name resolution service think IP address computer often four dot numeric address to logical domain name human readable name. Berkely as in University of Berkely a big established University with roots to the Internet's beginnings - MIT is another big University known also as Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has open learning materials see, great many subjects here from computing to sciences including medicine but also arts and humanities subjects including but not limited to anthropology. Actually this website has some really complex topics linked to computing. Ability to explore topics or subject matters and there are a whole range of subjects such as probability and statistics, engineering and philosophy. Also Architecture, Applied Mathematics, American History and Artificial Intelligence.

This is an example of a Google short answer from analysis and from previous technical knowledge it is accurate - RFC is also an abbreviation for Remote Function Call. A Request for Comments (RFC) is a formal document from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that is the result of committee drafting and subsequent review by interested parties. Some RFCs are informational in nature.

IETF task force standards and also IEEE specifications known as the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers are right through Cisco computer network curriculum via Cisco's networking Academy. Standards are the hallmark of computer networks - standards lead on to interoperability and devices being able to talk to one another also communicate back and forth seamlessly in a common message format - ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is the error message format for Cisco routers, small error messages to aid diagnosing of problems.

Seek a definition on Request for Comments and be reminded about Remote Function Call - acronyms and abbreviations right throughout the field of computing and a thorough grasp of language enables connotations to be drawn also enables logical comparisons too look for new meanings to also better understand topics and concepts. Bear in mind actually it appears computing professionals often contribute in the online space including to Wikipedia - sharing fundamental to advancing knowledge.

In a nutshell, Remote Procedure Call is a software communication protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details. RPC calls more often than not are synchronous - The key difference between synchronous and asynchronous communication is synchronous communications are scheduled, real-time interactions by phone, video, or in-person. Asynchronous communication happens on your own time and does not need scheduling - ASDL was Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line faster downloads than uploads this started off broadband in most homes in the North-East of Scotland, SDSL resulted in same speed upload and download - S for synchronous.

RPC is used to call other processes on the remote systems like a local system.

Reverse DNS lookup is an IP address to friendly name like a domain name mapping - The reverse DNS linked to the ARP command performs a reverse DNS lookup and return sthe name record for that IP address. This method of reverse DNS resolution of an IP address uses a PTR record. Using reverse DNS, the IP address is reversed and then the is added to the end.

Each DNS database zone file consists of one or more resource records, including the Canonical Name (CNAME) this is a friendly name usually represents a shortcut in DNS real name or real world terms, Pointer (PTR) and Mail Exchange (MX) records - MX records point to email services such as Google Gmail online service. Organisations with domain names can use Gmail for the email service.

Creating and updating the resource records that comprise the DNS zone files is one of the primary tasks of a DNS administrator.

The zone file contains mappings between domain names and IP addresses and other resources, organized in the form of text representations of resource records (RR). A zone file may be either a DNS master file, to describing a zone as an authoritative master server for name resolution, or it may be used to list the contents of a DNS cache.

DNS servers perform one or more functions also perhaps called Zone Master Servers. A master name server maintains all the data corresponding to the zone, making it the authority for that zone. Master servers are commonly called authoritative name servers.

Zones need explained as a concept - DNS is a hierarchical system and many countries have Top Level Domains such as for Australia, dot jp is Japan and dot co dot uk is the United Kingdom, dot com usually American websites like dot gov which is US government websites. UK government websites are dot gov dot uk and Australian government websites are dot gov dot au.

Dutch websites use dot nl, the Dutch train time service is and French websites are dot fr while Italian websites are dot it also Altervista is actually an Italian web hosting service but it has English facing services also. Italian websites actually difficult to understand without understanding Italian. per favore is please in Italian like sil vous plait is please in French - important to be polite when travelling holidaying abroad, try to speak to natives in their own tongue such as in restaurants. They usually like it when foreigners try the local lingo and waiters and waitresses usually smile. Electronic language translators long been on the go, but now there is Google Translate from smartphones.

Google Translate web-based service has evolved improved over time has a long history on the web - on mobile first though their was Google Goggles for instant language translation and also Google Latitude discontinued for WiFi tracking also DNS Domain tree structure explained

Google Translate has historically been available from a web service but the service from smartphone actually had a different name in the beginning - service can change names as service offering evolve. Google Goggles was the translate service from smartphone just like how Google Latitude enabled WiFi tracking from mobile devices - the latter service has been discontinued. Google Lens is the new mobile service that enables users identify names of plants and animals via camera on a smartphone using also mobile data.

Hierarchical is a tree like structure - top level domains come at the end of a domain name, in the middle is usually a specific name or string chosen by a customer or user who pays money also purchases a domain name and they usually represent a company name or brand. Domain names can have sub-domains for example - news is a sub-domain of the wider This domain name is known to most people and households in the UK and the BBC has the BBC World Service which is the television service available in most parts of the world outside of the United Kingdom. Due to the BBC licence fee, it is UK households and residents that actually gain the most from BBC content, the most enriching and engaging content such as the BBC iPlayer, but the iPlayer and its content can be accessed through a Virtual Private Network - VPN services may be paid for services provided by commercial companies. Countries may restrict VPN acess based on IP address.

BBC World Service is often a basic service like CNN outside of America. Go back to James Bond and Golden Eye, Judi Dench in her first encounter as M implied American intelligence came from CNN the news broadcaster in reference to an incident in Russia implying that British intelligence was ahead and did not rely on the mainstream media - in this film Robbie Coltrane was involved as a Russian KGB agent.

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Technical definitions from Google, copying text and plenty whitespace in HTML aids web page coding simplifies adding container tags wrapping of HTML elements around text

Google's answers technology is useful for technical definitions, but it is not exactly clear who owns the copyright. Google is a search service, indexes content but actually Google is an aggregator as well for online information - it is a search service that can provoke an enquiring mind stimulate information seeking behaviour and provide prompts and answers, also cues and those with additional difficulties like show and tell and often like cues also prompts someone to always be there.

Google great useful service but previous knowledge from study of concepts enables analysis also with respect of remembering events that have happened.

Google provides great definitions but actually humans can enhance definitions provide greater meaning use alternative meanings break down and simplify concepts. Technical definitions through Google search a typically short, not elaborate in a very real sense - it is humans that add real definition and explain in layman terms, educate others also connect the dots provide synthesis bring concepts together to explain help others understand.

It is always important to cite or reference sources since others can verify or substantiate your claims. Of course people may copy text and take credit for work that is not their own - broad sharing and making people aware of the author can actually out people that seek to take advantage of free content and copy and paste at will.

However, copying text can actually seek to preserve good material that is educational - copying goes hand in hand with acknowledging sources giving individuals credit for their contribution and actually this is what spurs on originally and innovation. New works and new creative works can be interesting and inform also spur on others and spark ideas also improvements when people object and complain.

Whitespace between lines it was enables rapid copying with the ability to apply mark-up or HTML tags such as wrapping p or letter-p paragraph tags around text. Nicolo Capani's advice works well applied to traditional principles of journalism with respect to typing also copying text - his advice may not work so well when web page code is more complex or complicated such as where PHP scripts are used. Really Nicolo's advice actually good for copying for example Facebook video descriptions to Notepad and then wrapping paragraph tags for example around text - really whitespace serves this purpose well also take Google Chrome and when you view source code in the web browser text automatically wraps so in a sense publishing web pages and using web browsers to access clean code and text serves well to preserve content.

Worth always remembering there is the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 section 28 which stipulates fair dealing to copy 10 percent of published works. Creativity and people sharing mistakes also workarounds having humility admiting when they have done wrong is actually the hallmark of positive change when people seek also strive to be well-meaning think of others and make improvements. Continual improvements is central to improving service provision as is continuous professional development, embracing change and also new technologies. Often it is new innovative technologies that improve efficiencies lead also to a better improved quality of life and standard of living.

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Incremental back-ups can back-up just content of a website efficiently low file size - spliting documents and photos into a single container file sharing via social media websites

Incremental back-ups of data really useful actually to preserving text content such as web pages - the web pages comprising a small to medium website minus all the supporting documents also images can be small in fact enabling incremental back-ups to save storage space - benefits of combining documents also images into single container video files and sharing via media sharing websites is that the real substantial detail can be viewed easily in sequence in a logical order, but sequencing and order takes planning usually for good effective story telling but sometimes events that roll on forward like life is more suited for timely news - the messages on this website can be backed-up most efficiently.

Microsoft OneDrive also Google Drive do provide 15GB free storage space actually - actually free accounts can actually provide a means to back-up really essential data you do not want to lose. Free accounts can enable data duplication.

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Free 15GB digital accounts suitable for a child with passwords shared amongst multiple loved ones.

Actually a free account of 15GB could be suitable for a child where the password is shared by an Uncle or Aunty for example and parents containing positive imagery of loved ones associated with a child, photos from a child's early years and childhood including videos, also relationships such as family trees and links to Facebook Timelines of family members including people who may be understanding and supportive in the event of some unforeseen tragedy - actually multiple people knowing the passwords for an account linked to a child actually could help a child keep fond memories - tablet computers can be linked to online accounts also and when a tablet is lost it may be necessary to change the password without need to remotely wipe a tablet or smartphone.

Photos of parents, grandparents even great grandparents is one thing, but identifying people is a different matter - sometimes sharing photos is necessary to identify people, wider family members may actually people able to identify someone from the past.

This really makes the case for renaming filenames and renaming filenames linked to photos with names of linked corresponding people.

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Google Maps zones in using IP address also GPS and compass

Google Maps hones in on your current location usually the place where you are or reside, your home - this is based actually on your computer's IP address from a laptop and desktop computer at home. On the move via mobile data, Google Maps refers to GPS coordinates and actually the compass plays a role here.

Compasses typially have four sides - North, East, South and West - Never Eat Shreaded Wheat is the way to remember the compass rotation.

Raster images and vector graphics also Google Image search

Google Image Search actually contains a vast number of diagrams perhaps useful for reference - if you find something useful right-click on an image and click Save Image, making sure not to click Save Link if you are running Mozilla Firefox. Diagrams are different from JPEG photographs - there are raster images also vector images.

Raster images are the types of images that are produced when scanning or photographing an object. Raster images are compiled using pixels, or tiny dots, containing unique color and tonal information that come together to create the image. Since raster images are pixel based, they are resolution dependent.

Vector graphics like PNG images or line art more suitable for diagrams with lines and textual content - a vector graphic is an artwork made up of points, lines, and curves that are based upon mathematical equations, rather than solid colored square pixels. This means no matter the size or how far zoomed in the image is, the lines, curves, and points remain smooth.

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Indexing delay for digital content - Search engines such as Google crawl the web to find new pages - actually topical news stories may disappear from BBC News Online website and may not appear in search results for a few days, weeks or months

Search engines such as Google crawl the web to find new pages - actually topical news stories may disappear from BBC News Online website and may not appear in search results for a few days, weeks or months. Really important to continue flow, if a story catches your eye, copy the website address or specific page, reference it and start a discussion around topics linked to the web page having been copied. Going back in time in the timely production of Google search results in the information world is more difficult without tracking events over time whether bookmarking web pages or honing in on interesting events that have happened over time. People often hone in on topics that interest them - this is actually linked often to technical vocations and also people can be career focused with the aim to advancing career prospects bettering themselves.

This is linked to indexing of web pages and actually through what used to be Google Webmaster Tools now the main Google console, webmasters can specifically create XML sitemaps to automatically create a record of all web pages on a website to notify Google the search giant of changes also new web pages. Big issue is that journalists working for news organisations like the BBC for example, may churn out many web pages every single day but actually it is important also to notify search engines of new web pages.

Really for ordinary readers and viewers of web pages, it is important to bookmark interesting news stories they have read, but actually it is easy to discard a story, read it at a glance and feel it is not worth bookmarking - issues come actually when users or viewers want to reference past stories that have been archived at a later date. Actually index and search is important - also being specific with due regards to dates is also important - simply referring to years may not be adequate when an individual want to reference an event that has happened but cannot be specific also pinpoint the date a particular event happened.

Search engines actually enable broad distribution and copying facilitating indexing of digital content and with replicas of content actually this reinforces digital integrity - it is publishing, sharing combined with copying that reinforces digital integrity in the digital age, but still information can be changed on the fly also people make mistakes and video is more visual content and seeing really is believing.

So with this Google Bookmarks also syncing Bookmarks in Firefox is important - Google also uses active sync technology to keep bookmarks in sync across mobile, tablet and computers but still syncing can produce errors and may not always work - however exporting bookmarks to HTML web pages, deleting bookmarks synced to online services and re-importing from HTML files can help to simplify digital lives sometimes.

Deleting is also part of managing data minimising load on file servers more so in the information or document retrieval world less so with photos and videos since nice imagery natural world scenes provide snapsnot into time also summarising information and publishing also sharing with others can lead to education and teach others. HTML web pages are relatively small in size when code is kept clean and web pages efficient enabling also optimisation and faster load times on slower networks such as networks in African nationals using Global Packet Radio service. Video can also show how conversations change over time, enable abuse to actually be picked up highlighted also potentially enabling someone to get help, be supported, improve life chances and real world prospects.

Create an XML sitemap automatically a no brainer approach definitely not intimidating, a simplified approach and easy upload to Google's console to notify of web page changes - see

Google's search console -

Google search central formerly Google Webmaster Tools -

Google Analytics useful for general statistics about web page visitors such as what computer platform they are using also which web pages are more popular, but knowing whether the figures are accurate is a different story hard to tell with random numbers -

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TCP windowing and buffering regulates flow control - Slots and appointments for court actually translate to use of video for people attending court via video link over the shared medium the Internet - also use of Leyer 2 two Tunnelling Protocol can encrypt connections using a Virtual Private Network - also the concept of windowing provides flow control in computer networks, controlling sending data packets between two network devices where dependable and sequential delivery of data packets is needed

Big issue actually 100 one hundred people may attend Aberdeen Sheriff Court on a single day all given 10am or ten in the morning just after cowboy time - traditionally ten to ten - not separate appointments for flexible travel by bike. Slots and appointments actually for court cases helps people to get there and turn up on time - appointment windows is like the windowing concept in computer networks.

Slots and appointments for court actually translate to use of video for people attending court via video link over the shared medium the Internet - also use of Leyer 2 two Tunnelling Protocol can encrypt connections using a Virtual Private Network. Video link actually has potential for more flexible use of time with also renegotiation - Internet communications use TCP Transmission Control Protocol and a 3-way handshake with an ACK to say thanks Acknowledgement packet for a message received also a SYN bit for synchroisation and syncing connections or establishing a connection.

The SSL renegotiation flaw can affect different types of systems. It is essentially caused by a vulnerability in the client-initiated renegotiation of SSL/TLS for existing server connections. Some of the symptoms of renegotiation issues include: It fails in the case of a virtual server processing SSL connections.

SSL/TLS client-initiated renegotiation is a feature that allows the client to renegotiate new encryption parameters for an SSL/TLS connection within a single TCP connection. During the SSL/TLS handshake the server incurs a higher computational cost.

Starting a new handshake negotiation inside of an existing secure session is called renegotiation.

A sliding window is also known as windowing. A sliding window is a method for controlling sending data packets between two network devices where dependable and sequential delivery of data packets is needed, such as using the Data Link Layer (OSI model) or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Data packets usually sent unordered but windowing brings flow control in essence to a computer network.

Buffering linked to the concept of windowing can cause a problem if the sending device transmits data much faster than the receiving device is able to manage it. Windowing in a windowing environment, data is sent in groups of segments that require only one acknowledgment. Groups of messages help to bring more order to chaos over the Internet and in data communications.

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Clideo easily rotate a video up to 500Mb so for small video files and supports upload from Apple iPhone Mov or Movie format also from Android MP4 format also Radio waves and satellite signals use line of sight and also Infrared visible in the dark good for night vision, Infrared beams out TV or television signals from the Durris transmitter and bridge between Drumoak and Durris now closed to traffic

Clideo easily rotate a video dependent on a data connection from a web-based interface up to 500Mb so for small video files and supports upload from Apple iPhone Mov or Movie format also from Android MP4 format - Export also to WebM format high visual quality low file size good compression - innovations and new developments happen all the time.

Ever noticed how Android uses MP4 or MPEG-4 also Motion Picture Experts Group format files. Well that is linked to H.264 video compression standards and published works from Processor Iain Richardson of Aberdeen's Robert Gordon's University School of Engineering the former lecturer who moved on to become a reader preferring perhaps a role in research into compression algorithms also codecs instead of a spot in the limelight. It should be noted the author of this web page has not bought the published work of Iain Richardson but did email him as a student insisting this student was in receipt of public funds and students should not be pressurised to buy the published works of academics. MP4 and Android now everywhere - great exceptional talent might come from Aberdeen's RGU and students are usually the best ambassadors - also the University always sending Alumni bulletins to graduates might not always be read but it is proof the University keeps in touch with its graduates after graduation. Credit actually must go to Iain Richardson for producing published works on H.264 he was ahead of his time - educators must get ahead of time in a sense so that inventors create novel solutions.

Clideo actually as an online service has limits or limitations also restrictions for example it is for flipping video files solely and purely when they are the wrong way around might help some novice video users to easily change orientation of small video files. Limited to video file upload to 500Mb. Online services for video editing do tend to be limited in respect of video manipulation.

Always better to write about interactions with online services while events are fresh in your memory, documenting issues and workarounds maybe the best way to let off steam against the backdrop of constantly changing dynamic user interfaces, but actually while online websites and services can have screen changes actually it is static web pages with content that focuses on education that makes users keeping coming back or returning. Most children learn to write in early years primary school - language and comprehension gets ingrained in a young learner's mind and seems to be retained for well several decades nowadays Scottish school children are learning Jolly phonics phonetic sounds and there is the NATO phonetic alphabet Alpha, Bravo, Charlie and so on - also two-way radios also the need to say Roger that this was crackling and interference, the Linux and MS-DOS world has the echo command which writes text to the screen, with redirection indicator or greater than symbol > text strings can be output to a file.

Actually echo command can be used in MS-DOS batch files to automate installation of applications or Windows computer programs to unattended installs with screen output to inform the user what is going is on.

Batch files easily written and best written in Windows Notepad basic text editor like HTML web pages - Notepad can produce Universal TXT files compatible with Android as well as Windows, Mac and Linux enabling porting data migration of data real well between non-compatible systems but actually real benefit comes from sharing information and File, Save As in Notepad and filenames with .html or dot html the universal sharing format for web pages.

Still TXT files can be simple, useful to quickly copy text from video descriptions shared on Facebook also shared text on Facebook preservation of digital content for local storage and storage in online cloud storage providers or with online storage services.

Sometimes it is worth repeating information for clarity where it seems relevant but really this has been mentioned before and actually repeating can be wasteful, actually in conflict zones there can be need to streamline news focus on key details bring the most significant details to the fore without delay - news is usually timely and events keep on happening, delays can be costly. Historically Ethernet local area networks used Hubs for small networks and repeaters to extend signals, boost range and amplify signals.

Signals may get relayed through satellites with delays and delays also known as latency also signal attenuation - Possible communication satellites may be active or passive.

An active satellite is one which has transmitting equipment aboard, such as a transponder, a device which receives a signal from Earth, amplifies it, and retransmits the same signal back to Earth (either immediately or after a delay).

Radio waves use line of sight and also Infrared visible in the dark good for night vision, Infrared beams out TV or television signals from the Durris transmitter and bridge between Drumoak and Durris now closed to traffic - The high frequency radio waves used for telecommunications links travel by line of sight and so are obstructed by the curve of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between widely separated geographical points.

Just like how satellites aid or facilitate data communication also modern telecommunications, real people do need to move around on the ground.

Simpler to charge an electric bike and charging an electric bike can be done using Alternating Current during the night from homes also households taking a lithium battery off a bike that can hold a charge typically for between 25 and 70 miles this is local travel but Aberdeen to Inverurie is possible as a day commute and Aberdeen City Council is upgrading this route - really electricity consumption might be higher during the night in future, but really most workers will need EV vehicles to get to job roles and workplaces without more localised working patterns and reorganisation of Scotland's disparete workforce affecting job opportunities perhaps also care for vulnerable persons - Aberdeenshire very rural sparsely populated with large expanses of agriculture also farming land and mostly during the Summer months there is the Hay Bail Harvest for whiskey production.

Electric vehicle EV charging instructions at Kingswells Park and Ride the future of motoring, digital skills education means more independence for women - Mennekes Type 2 plug green lights on the back of chargers indicate EV chargers ready to use. Activate charger, plug cable into vehicle, lift flap to connect to socket - flaps totally sealed impossible to open without swiping card making contact with sensor - not clear where the sensor is, it might be the user interface screen or panel. Sensors are present on EV chargers Kingswells no buttons present on EV chargers - users swipe a card at a sensor. This is breaking down EV charging, explaining. To unplug an EV car, need to power down an EV charger absolutely no instructions provided at Kingswells about how to power down a charger although instructions are provided giving detail on the EV charger still some people may appreciate show and tell more and this is hands on learning also known as kinaesthetic learning, a learning style or means of learning - learning usually learn using a varierty of methods and different learners can have preferences some people prefer visual means of learing actually most people learning better from seeing something with our own eyes. LED lights go from blue to yellow and green. Might need to push cable into unit if you struggle to get it out. Important everyone gets their head around EV chargers - electrofication is the future of motoring for everyone that has a will to live.

31st July 2022 Kingswells Park and Ride - this is solar panel sensors linked to Zebra crossing beacons, sustainable solutions and safety now going hand in hand also linked to solar power. Note also electronic panel at the Arnhall Drive bus stop on Westhill Drive for display of bus times - electronic displays make it easier to update information from afar or remotely.

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The Speccy application can obtain a pre-installed product key for Windows 10 from a laptop that users have purchased, so important actually to take a note write down or document product keys when you first purchase and turn on a new Windows 10 or Windows 11 laptop - Really users and organisations need to always seek to migrate data formats - this is data conversion and the TXT file format is universal - TXT files created with Windows Notepad also or dot com can offer applications when Windows 10 does not recognise a file type or file extension

There is a difference between personal stored data in online storage, what is published online and what people remember or can recall based on what they have learnt and also based on acquired knowledge.

Google search also Google smart answers based on web search or user queries actually useful for technical definitions and searching for specific technical terms reveals the most useful, informative information which translates to educational material.

Students may do courses at College perhaps Polytechnic Colleges in America and degree level courses at University also often digital course materials may be produced and shared by both academics and students. Keeping such course materials long term can be beneficial to jog memories, look back also at what was taught in the past, but actually events happen and the world moves on.

Developments in computing can be slow to roll-out on a mass scale, Facebook was very disruptive - Windows XP was around for 10 ten years from 2001-2011 being actively updated by Microsoft also there was lots of counterfeit versions which thus drove the need to activate Windows and copyright protection measures, also Windows uses product keys and they used to come on new computer units as a label for example underneath a laptop, but nowadays laptops may not come with a product key stuck to the base on a label.

The Speccy application can obtain a pre-installed product key for Windows 10 from a laptop that users have purchased, so important actually to take a note write down or document product keys when you first purchase and turn on a new Windows 10 or Windows 11 laptop to assist re-installation for when or the occurrence of malicious software or malware wreacks havoc and you need to perform a fresh setup or installation of Windows 10 for example possible via Reset This PC from Windows 10 search box.

Much software still available to download online is available for older versions of Windows than Windows 10 and this is known as legacy software applications and legacy support.

Larger organisations may still use legacy applications for bespoke purposes and for particular applications and there is a need to migrate or port data in old proprietary formats - data may be on old media like floppy disks less seldom nowadays - actually newer computers did away with floppy disk drives.

Really users and organisations need to always seek to migrate data formats - this is data conversion and the TXT file format is universal - TXT files created with Windows Notepad - click File, Save As from Notepad, then in the File type box type in a filename in double quotes with the file extention dot html or .html this is Web page format - no need for a full stop after html but important to put a full stop before the suffix html. Suffixes and prefixes are two different components of language. A prefix comes before but file extensions are known as suffixes and come at the end - right-click a file in Windows Explorer the main window for browsing files and then click Properties to view the file extension of a given file - file extensions have three dots usually the last three dots and different applications open files with a unique file extension.

The website enables lookup of file extenions to match a user application to open an unknown file type or a file Windows 10 cannot open. gives a choice of applications to open a given file type - some applications may be free, open source and some maybe paid for.

Paid for applications may also have 15 or 30 day trials useful for students, demos and testing software to see if it fits your needs and often trial software has limitations, this is to encourage users to spend money in the digital economy. Those who work in the digital economy are likely software developers who seek to help others, computer users, accomplish tasks, user goals, solve problems and make traditional business tasks more efficient.

Useful website of the digital age is MyAberdeenshire website pay bills, check bin collection dates and pay for Council services as well -

Legacy software applications can be useful have bespoke particular applications, but with older applications there are security vulnerabilities and the need to install updates, patch programs install hotfixes.

Hot fixes generally tend to address a particular problem - updates to Windows 10 can include new product functionity as well as security enhancements.

Stored data from past study may be different actually to events that have happened since - events in computing evolve actually during 2001 when Windows XP emerged there was really no such thing as self-driving automated cars but the year 2000 saw the emergency of the first electric vehicle the Smart car, a compact tiny electric vehicle could not take much luggage and around this time there was the Ford Ka, another small car - small cars may be preferred by female drivers like young woman with children who are parents.

Also it is difficult actually to properly assess or analyse what stored data actually is stored in online storage with most cloud storage providers such as Google Drive, Dropbox and Microsoft OneDrive without opening files and accessing stored data.

Really there is a need to open files - actually create new fresh content based on stored data become possible. Stored data can spark new ideas lead to helpful information that is more accurate, lead to more accurate reflections taken into consideration events that have happened and been published in the media.

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Broadcast storms can overwhelm a computer network and ping commands can check if a router or computer server is alive or active but also ping can lead to ping floods overwhelming servers known as Denial of Service attacks knock online servers offline also Arp cache on Windows 10 arp minus a or arp -a reveals paths to the Internet on Windows 10, also arp -d can clear or flush a local cache to resolve issues from Command Prompt

Flooding and Broadcast are two routing algorithms used in computer networks today. Flooding sends all incoming packets through every outgoing edge. Broadcasting means every device in the network will receive a packet.

In the case of a ping flood or a denial of service attack, it can be harmful to the reliability of a computer network. Messages can become duplicated in the network further increasing the load on the network as well as requiring an increase in processing complexity to disregard duplicate messages.

ping commands can check if a router or computer server is alive or active but also ping can lead to ping floods overwhelming servers known as Denial of Service attacks knock online servers offline. There is always good and bad intentions with computer networks - hackers may use port scanning as pre-emptive to hacking so really firewalls are important to only allow data traffic through designate ports like windows or access holes to online services.

Broadcast storms - A broadcast or data storm is excessive transmission of broadcast traffic in a network. This happens when a broadcast across a network results in even more responses, and each response results in still more responses, in a snowball effect.

When the switch receives a broadcast frame, it sends it out to everyone connected to it. In flooding the switch sends the frame to all because it doesn't know how to reach the destination. In broadcasting the host that created the frame itself addressed the frame to everyone. ARP process uses flooding not broadcasting.

Broadcast storms can be caused by - Due to high processing demands during a broadcast storm, communication may fail between end stations in the broadcast domain. During a boardcast storm, constant changes to the MAC address table prevent a switch from accurately forwarding frames. MAC address tables are often highlighted using the arp command which shows routes or pathways to the Internet.

Mesh Topology Flooding Technique - In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all network nodes like computers connected to a network this can make information delivery efficient support efficient transmission of data. Hence, no routing logic is required here. Moreover, in flooding, the network is robust, and it is not interested to lose data, but it leads to unwanted load over the network.

Flooding in networks downside - It is wasteful if a single destination needs the packet, since it delivers the data packet to all nodes irrespective of the destination. The network may be clogged with unwanted and duplicate data packets. This may hamper delivery of other data packets.

A broadcast message is destined to all network devices. Broadcast routing can be done in two ways (algorithm): A router creates a data packet and then sends it to each host one by one. In this case, the router creates multiple copies of single data packet with different destination addresses.

ARP broadcasts a request packet to all the machines on the LAN and asks if any of the machines are using that particular IP address. When a machine recognizes the IP address as its own, it sends a reply so ARP can update the cache for future reference and proceed with the communication.

Explanation. The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by a client computer to request its Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from a computer network, when all it has available is its link layer or hardware address, such as a MAC address.

ARP is linked to updating routing tables and routing information in connection with routers on the backbone of the Internet - By extension, an ARP table is simply the method for storing the information discovered through ARP. It's used to record the discovered MAC and IP address pairs of devices connected to a network.

ARP discovers the MAC physical hardware address of a network adaptor or network interface card a circuitboard inside a computer - By extension, an ARP table is simply the method for storing the information discovered through ARP. It's used to record the discovered MAC and IP address pairs of devices connected to a network.

The arp minus a or -a command on Windows 10 from a command prompt reveals routes or pathways to the Internet. This is known as the ARP cache on a local Windows 10 computer. A cache of routes or entries is how data packets are forwarded most efficiently - well it is how local user machines running Windows 10 know how to handle information requests, for example a user request for a web page or to send an e-mail by the way of Microsoft Outlook or Windows Mail an application on Windows 10 version ten.

Arp minus d or arp -d flushes the ARP cache on a local computer or machine, zeroes it or wipes it clean. This can clear issues linked to name resolution in connection with a MAC address or a physical hardware network adaptor but also there is ipconfig/flushdns which clears the local resolver cache.

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Breakdown of how satellite communications work with Network Control Protocol also DPUs really the purpose of NCP the network protocol is to connect two remote users located geographically independent of each other useful in adverse weather - shift from 3G circuit switched network to packet switching Internet TCP/iP communications with 4G and 5G - also Assembley language specific RISC instruction set used for device drivers also ARM chips used with mobiles and tablets, also Microsoft bundles lots of device drivers with Windows 10

NCP linked to parking also linked to Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system, a different system entirely to the Network Control Protocol used in satellite communications. NCR for parking means that your vehicle registration number is captured when you drive in and out of a car parks using NCP. This allows for accurate determination of arrival and departure time in car parks.

The Network Control Protocol (NCP) is a mechanism used to establish and configure different Network Layer protocols for Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connections. The Network Control Protocol is used in satellite systems to relay messages also satellites are now being used for Internet access to really connect two remote users located geographically independent of each other this is what a Point-to-Point connection means in practice over the Internet normally by means of a TCP Transmission Control Protocol session.

TCP establishes sessions in communications at a data level that is why there is a three-way handshake with ACK data packets to say thanks. TCP sessions get established for the exchange of IP Internet Protocol data packets - these are the small units of information sent unordered across the Internet, packets less than 64Kbps known as runts and are malformed not proper data packets. ICMP is the error messaging protocol sends error messages and diagnostic information between routers usually these are small limited to essential information for resolving issues or problems and for fault finding may also be referred to troubleshooting.

Switches are also found in computer networks - they transfer frames. There is data encapsulation in a computer network where messages get wrapped in outer layers or encapsulated, framing is one technique and is done usually at the Data link layer the same layer where MAC Media Access Control addresses are involved these are the world unique hardware addresses physically shipping on circuitboards such as network adaptor cards. There is a protocol called Frame relay used also in connection with Cisco routers sometimes.

How Does Frame Relay Work? Frame relay uses packet switching technology. This means that it breaks data, such as call data, into smaller packets, also known as frames, to transmit it through a shared frame relay network. These data packets are then reassembled at the data's destination.

Frame really used in packet switched networks like the Internet - frame relay lower level encapsulation technology for IP Internet Protocol data packets with a message also called payload data - payload modules may go on rockets built using modular engineering by teams of people.

Traditional phone network hard wired in most homes using copper cabling is circuit-switched and 3G, 4G and 5G is known as cellular.

From circuit switching to packet switching a movement in telecommunications from 3G to 4G and 5G actually - In the cellular network GSM (2G) and UMTS (3G) use circuit switching for voice, circuit switched dialup (CSD) and short messaging service (SMS) traffic and use packet switching for GPRS data traffic. In LTE also 4G the entire network uses packet switching and has no capability for circuit switched network support.

4G vs. LTE. In laymans terms, the difference between 4G and LTE is that 4G is faster than LTE. The reason for this is that 4G meets the technical standards designated for it whereas LTE data transfer speed standard is merely a stop gap measure standard devised until actual 4G speed is realised.

The future of telecommunications is really packet-switched technology, but migration can take time - job roles here for telecoms engineers.

A DPU is a specialised piece of hardware and is used with the Network Control Protcol in satellite communications for the relay of messages between two remote users at ground level somewhere back on Earth - two users may be geographically independent of each other. So a DPU is special hardware in data communications and actually it is used in both satellite communications and also in data centres so a device with multiple practical applications in the real world.

A DPU also is essentially designed to process data moving around the data center. It focuses on data transfer, data reduction, data security and powering data analytics, as well as encryption and compression. This means it supports more efficient data storage and frees up the CPU the brain operation of a computer also known as the processor or microprocessor derived from silicon to focus on application processing.

A DPU is system on a chip (SoC) that combines three key elements: An industry-standard, high-performance, software programmable, multi-core CPU, typically based on the Arm architecture (a form of reduced instruction set like RISC from computing) and tightly coupled with the other SoC components.

ARM chips found in most mobiles and tablets from the Cambridge firm and also RISC is an instruction set linked to assembly level computer program code.

Assembly language really low level code close to binary programming - it is a special language really requires computer programmers with special knowledge of RISC (Reduced Instruction Set) computer program sets also assembly language - device drivers for computer hardware often tend to be written in low level assembly language.

Device drivers control the interface between computer hardware the physical devices and an operating system such as Windows 10.

From Windows 7 seven actually, Microsoft incroporated support for many device drivers - think Plug n' Play hardware detected automatically when connected to a computer.

Microsoft can be dominant with its Microsoft Windows software and Windows 10 is very popular certainly the software giant bundled Internet Explorer with Windows XP for example.

Really those with knowledge of special programming languages like Assembley language which really requires technical skill being close to binary can be overlooked in the computer industry by big major corporate giants who dominante the market.

Device drivers in Assembly language can be linked to Network Interface cards and nowadays there are SmartNICs increasing in popularity.

SmartNICs are different from regular NIC (Network Interface Cards) in two primary ways - capabilities and components. At a high-level, SmartNICs deliver accelerated, hardware-based networking, storage, and security capabilities for cloud, Artificial Intelligence, and traditional enterprise workloads.

In satellite message relay systems there is a Network Operations Centre likely at ground level - ground zero also linked to base stations think back to base camp and Infrared useful for night time communications also Infrared on television masts such as Durris - From a security perspective, the NOC functions as the first line of defense that enables the organization to monitor network security and recognize and address any attacks or disruptions to the network. Wireless signals from a base station radiate out to cordless phones in homes and a home can have multiple cordless phones linked to base stations loosely arranged in close proximity around a home. Nowadays mobile communications and Internet streaming also box set viewing very common in most households across the UK. Box set viewing can be linked with the couch potato lifestyle - sit back, relax watch TV passively this is also entertainment but also educational messages maybe attached.

In a business, network operations center (NOC) ensures that the business and the data are safe. The systems are operational and in order. It provides automated diagnostics and advanced alerts that help in keeping the business in operation.

Satellites higher capacity than on the ground radio waves like WiFi which use electromagnetic waves so much more data can be sent by satellite and via wireless than by cable also wireless communications more flexible but less secure also wireless more agile and natural disasters are increasing - to break it down first off, satellites use higher frequencies that are more powerful than other radio waves and allow them to concentrate all available power into a narrow beam. This helps to reduce bandwidth, which leaves more bandwidth over to send more communications.

Satellites also enable Earth monitoring and the monitoring of weather patterns also able to look down spot areas of trouble such as tree cover for example.

Satellites are GeoStationary placed 22,300 miles above the equator.

Breaking down satellite communications - GEO for radio broadcasting and VSAT for home computer users

GEO stands for Geostationary Earth Orbit. The communication satellites in this orbit operates at a distance of about 36000 km above the earth's surface and their orbital time period is about 24 hours. Geostationary Orbit Satellites are used for radio broadcasting.

Ground stations will have a satellite dish to link up or connect with satellites in the sky.

VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite communications system that serves home and business users. A VSAT end user needs a box that interfaces between the user's computer and an outside antenna with a transceiver. The tranceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky.

VSAT great potential application the London and New York Stock Exchanges - A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) is a data transmission technology used for many types of data management and in high-frequency trading. VSAT can be used in place of a large physical network as it bounces the signal from satellites instead of being transported through physical means like an ethernet connection.

VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit or geostationary orbit to relay data from small remote Earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh topology) or master Earth station hubs (in star topology).

Economic recovery for the global financial system needs to be quick and responsive to shocks and natural phenemena - VSAT services are independant of other wired and wireless mediums used as transmission network service provider. Hence it is a great backup system which is available during disaster and emergency situations.

Satellite boosts content availability in the face of freak weather events, natural phenomena events.

2017 published by IEEE originally ICN-based protocol architectures for next-generation backhauling over satellite -

Abstract of published work or blurb in a nutshell - The increasing demand for mobile services has been calling for new anywhere-anytime communication paradigms, building on the integration of heterogeneous technologies, such as satellite, LTE, and the new generation of mobile networks, i.e., 5G. In particular, the network design philosophy has shifted towards a more content-oriented approach so as to more efficiently meet the users' demands in terms of fast content availability and service continuity. Following this line, this paper proposes an enhancement to the PURSUIT information centric network (ICN) architecture, so as to improve the quality of experience of users in highly mobile environments. Simulation campaigns show the performance gain offered by the proposed solution with respect to regular PURSUIT implementations and benchmark IP-based strategies.

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Satallite Internet down to Earth use radiofrequency signals also TCP/IP and such signals is the foundation for modern life linked also RFID and bank cards, an essential technology a pre-requisite of modern communication and electronic payment solutions also computer servers need to be kept cold for optimal functioning and Law or legal firm Pinsent Masons published a statement on their website during August 2021 to say Voice over Internet Telephony or phone calls over WiFi are now to be made possible over phone networks so BT must allow this by law

Satellites are being provided in space by Elon Musk (also of Tesla electric cars) to provide Internet access - really connections to the Internet are fundamental both for the functioning of both home computers and also for computer servers contained in the cloud - the cloud actually refers to computer servers based in multiple countries across the world, some maybe in Iceland since computer servers need to be kept cold for optimal functioning. Global warming may also be happening linked to the Science of Temperature - absolute zero is the temperature of Kelvin and Glasgow has the River Kelvin near BBC Scotland HQ headquarters also the Glasgow Science Centre with the iMax Scotland's largest shimmering screen previously previewed the building of the International Space Station. Iceland is a land of geysers, hot springs, waterfalls, nice warm heated swimming pools and geothermal and volcanic activity. Geothermal energy also useful and bathing in hot springs can give feelings of sheer bliss.

Computer servers can be replicas of each other - multiple servers in a cluster to provide fault tolerance to keep the Internet functioning and server uptime as close to 100 percent as possible.

Netcraft server monitoring uptime -

Replica servers do need power or energy to function - certainly satellite Internet access will enable more remote areas of the world to connect to the Internet, but actually understand satellite relay communications is more of a mystery.

Internet signals from satellites to the Public Switched Telephone Network on the ground do rely on radiofrequency signals - RFID chips in bank cards also linked to Contactless and Chip and Pin payment technology so really radiofrequency is the foundation for modern life, an essential technology a pre-requisite of modern communication and electronic payment solutions. Bank teller machines or ATMs Automated Teller Machines from Dundee company NCR (not really automated because they require G4S security personnel in hard hats to stock cash in machines) long used Electronic Funds Transfer to relay financial information in real-time.

Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) is an RBI-backed Electronic Payment System. EFT enables the transfer of money via electronic mediums, reducing the dependence on cash or cheque transfers. Your fund transfer request goes through several entities before reaching the beneficiary. Electronic Funds Transfers linked also to Wire transfers online and is digital transfer of money.

Bacs is an established method of payment between banks and also between PayPal customer accounts and banks (PayPal used to be owned by eBay designed for efficient electronic transfers linked to auctions and selling also trading) - This is an electronic system to make payments directly from one bank account to another. They are mainly used for Direct Debits and direct credits from organisations. The payments take 3 three working days to clear, so money paid into your account on Monday will clear on Wednesday.

Starlink: Why is Elon Musk launching thousands of satellites? -

Satellite communications or the relay message system are controlled or governed in a sense by or using the overarching framework the American Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and from Wikipedia - The U.S. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is a network of American communications satellites (each called a tracking and data relay satellite, TDRS) and ground stations used by NASA for space communications.

More details also from Wikipedia - The system was designed to replace an existing network of ground stations that had supported all of NASA's crewed flight missions. The prime design goal was to increase the time spacecraft were in communication with the ground and improve the amount of data that could be transferred.

The history of tracking and data message relay also from Wikipedia stems from the 1980s so really satellites been really dominant from that point in time but Neil Armstrong first landed on the moon in 1969 and there is the Earth-moon system of artificial satellites - Many Tracking and Data Relay Satellites were launched in the 1980s and 1990s with the Space Shuttle and made use of the Inertial Upper Stage, a two-stage solid rocket booster developed for the shuttle. Other TDRS were launched by Atlas IIa and Atlas V rockets.

Traditionally, satellite system architectures are based on layered protocols such as ISO International Standards Organisation OSI Open System Interconnection (refer to 7 seven layer networking model also) or TCP/IP protocols in which each layer in the protocol stack is designed and operated independently with interfaces between layers.

There are three types of communication services that satellites provide: telecommunications, broadcasting, and data communications. Nowadays common for telecommunications to be converged happen over the Internet or TCP/IP and this is known as Voice over Internet Telephony or VoIP not a new technology, been around for over twenty years or 20 years but banned on the phone network of telecoms giant British Telecommunications for almost that length of time, certainly a significant time period - BT needed money from line rental also from customers to build a high-speed fibre optic network due to lack of Government subsidies and investment.

Really it is households or homes as well as small businesses that make up the backbone of BT's network but BT do now provide OpenZone which enables BT customers to log-in on WiFi or wireless network routers of other customers.

BT long been the dominant telecoms giant in the United Kingdom - BT own Plusnet, but BT sold BT Cellnet to O2 but BT regained control bought PlusNet in an acquisition after selling BT Cellnet - this is market forces and competitiveness at work. Technology start-up companies can be bought over by large established rival firms even big player those with a monopology such as BT.

Law or legal firm Pinsent Masons published a statement on their website during August 2021 to say Voice over Internet Telephony or phone calls over WiFi are now to be made possible over phone networks so BT must allow this by law - really the future is in paying for broadband but actually in practice BT is still charging money for phone calls also still charging for line rental, so really better with VoIP Internet phones and customers buying a new handset or physical phone bundle multiple cordless phones for their household.

Before broadband, there was ISDN for businesses - Integrated Services Digital Network, faster than dial-up 56Kbps connections actually around 128Kbps for businesses at a premium rate price point.

Households or home users tended to not use ISDN but used standard noisier modems with digital signals modulated demodulated (modem for short) over a phone line or physical carrier medium typically copper cable runs to most homes, really a rare earth mineral from cobalt.

In a nutshell, Satallite Internet down to Earth use radiofrequency signals also TCP/IP and such signals is the foundation for modern life linked also RFID and bank cards, an essential technology a pre-requisite of modern communication and electronic payment solutions also computer servers need to be kept cold for optimal functioning and Law or legal firm Pinsent Masons published a statement on their website during August 2021 to say Voice over Internet Telephony or phone calls over WiFi are now to be made possible over phone networks so BT must allow this by law.

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Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast and Anycast - the latter useful for sending to a computer in a group or cluster and computer servers can be clustered together for redundancy fault tolerance as well as multiple hard drives being bound together to mirror data held in racks in server farms - Fault tolerance is actually created from multiple server computers bound together in a cluster - when one server fails, a replica server computer is able to continue to provide service and replica servers are the hallmark of the Internet

Ability to keep personal information secure and use online storage solutions for example is really key to digital security while having the capability to transmit small updates in information across a computer network with minimum personal data stored on personal devices. Heavy lifting with computer processing power can happen in the cloud with computer servers usually built with more powerful processors and also multiple processors like 32 processers in a typical server computer in a server farm. Windows 2000 actually supported 16 processors per server computer - that was the past around 20 years ago but nowadays desktop personal computers from Mesh Computers for example may come with massive amounts of memery also multiple processors built into a computer known as cores - dul core two processors working together in tandem, quad core is four processors really quadcore more synonymous with Quantum computing but not exactly - Quantum computing involves fast computer processers, many calculations per second and high power number crunching to predict weather and climate patterns. Scientists been using high powered machines for a while and that is how they have actually predicted more intense weather patterns - they have long been warning about it.

Websites and publishing can work well to inform and educate - information on public display via a web-based platform is readily accessible from anywhere enabling right-click on a web page, clicking View source to see also save web page code. Clean code and taking the time to write in HTML the raw native language of the web may preserve information better long-term and CSS or the style sheet language can present web pages for social inclusion large print for better display on mobile devices potentially to reach more people including African children, although still an issue around web hosting firms, public computer servers also mirroring data in server farms with customer also personal data stored likely in a RAID5 configuration - different levels of RAID actually with different levels of redundancy built in, there is RAID 1-5 or five levels actually. RAID is for Redundant Array of Independent Hard Drives or perhaps Inexpensive Disks - small capacity hard drives are more cost effective so this is the benefit of mirroring also, really mirroring also enables cost savings for storage and back-up firms also cloud hosting storage providers. Everyone and individuals may have different points of view - really explaining points of view, breaking complex topics down and writing, talking about issues surrounding a topic is really how to advance education.

Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP for sharing error messages usually just essential information between backbone Cisco routers on the Internet.

Important to mention broadcasting in computer networks - for more information, see Professionals in computing may devote hours to updating Wikipedia - the online encyclopaedia that actually does contain a treasure trove of useful technical information. Sharing techical information online actually is what teaches others because complex technical information can be easily forgotten and there is also a learning curve in the first place - many Cisco academies exist for the training of the Internet generation to maintain the Internet ecosystem and network of routers and switches.

Broadcasting refers to Unicast sending to a single computer on a network specifying a destination or receiver, Broadcast sending to all computers, Multicast sending to multiple computers, multicast enables recipients or receivers to be chosen so perhaps this is more useful than broadcast and Anycast. Anycast actually harder to understand in concept - a computer sending an Anycast message sends a message to one computer out of a group or cluster of computers, clustering of servers is an expression in computer networks. Anycast normally used to send data packets to a computer in a cluster and anycast tends to be used to send to the nearest computer in a group. RIP routing protocol along with RIP version 2 two actually uses a simple metric of hop count to count how many routers in a path between two end points. Hop counts and metric used with Anycast to determine the closest server computer in a cluster.

Broadcasting actually in data communications can be more efficient - telling everyone and a catch all can enable one message to be flooded across a network making Internet communications more efficient. Catch alls linked also to wildcard masks or like asterisks or stars in Cisco Access Control Lists for security on Cisco routers. Access Control Lists configured on Cisco routers can using software or a set of pre-determined rules filter data packets, or datagrams, also messages provide filter and greater security on independent networks which are segmented by routers - muliple routers and switches linked or connected together make up the Internet. There is an expression known as daisy chaining.

The daisy-chaining method of creating priority includes a serial connection of all devices that request an interrupt. The device with the highest priority is located in the first position, followed by lower-priority devices up to the device with the lowest priority, which is situated last in the chain.

Daisy chaining also occurs or happens in connection with electrical sockets or electrical outlets. Electricity is actually the future like EV electric vehicles.

Technically, you can have as many outlets on a 15 amp circuit breaker as you want. However, a good rule of thumb is 1 one outlet per 1.5 amps, up to 80 percent of the capacity of the circuit breaker. Therefore, we would suggest a maximum of 8 eight outlets for a 15 fifteen amp circuit.

The National Electric Code has no rules regarding how many outlets you can daisy chain off a single breaker. But generally speaking, it's best to keep the number below 13 because of average current draw.

For more information on electrical standards, refer to the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers who define or make standards really this is the official standards body and electrical signals are used in computer networks -

In a nutshell, Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast and Anycast - the latter useful for sending to a computer in a group or cluster and computer servers can be clustered together for redundancy fault tolerance as well as multiple hard drives being bound together to mirror data held in racks in server farms.

Fault tolerance is actually created from multiple server computers bound together in a cluster - when one server fails, a replica server computer is able to continue to provide service.

Replica servers are also the hallmark of the Internet and actually replica servers are really obvious in the Domain Name System or DNS or name servers. DNS servers referenced on home computers in ipconfig/all in Command Prompt Windows 10 ten - default gateways also mentioned and they are home routers and a portal or window also an Access Point to the Internet. Wired also Wireless home routers are Access Points in an Infrastructure Network or an Infrastructure Service Set network and each router has a unique Service Set Identifier. Ad hoc networks used with two digital devices send messages without the support of a router also known as an Access Point.

DNS provides name resolution services domain name to IP address machine address mappings. DNS helps everyone to remember a friendly domain name - most people would likely struggle to remember an IP address, an often four digit code separated by dots, for their favourite website. IP version 4 was becoming exhausted in supply of addresess so IP version 6 six addresses were created - these are much longer 128-bit hexadecimeal numbers built on a base of 16 from the 16 times table. The base 16 number system or the 16 times table is really the basis for Maths is STEM Science Technology Engineering and Maths as is floating point representation, boolean states true false, zero and one as well as technology gates such as AND, OR, NOT and NAND. Technology gates also refer to boolean and the NAND gate linked to NAND memory the type of memory that actually holds memory information without power.

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Essential summary information for online videos is year dash month dash date dash name and place are useful identifying features in a filename to create meaningful files perhaps screenshots - also Who, What, Where, Why and When really important to summarise content for indexing online by search engines with reference to online videos and discovery of relevant content also hard drives can be filled with zeroes known also as secure erase or wiping method with CCleaner also Eraser from

Essential summary information for online videos also for infographics - Year dash month dash date dash name and place are useful identifying features in a filename for summarising videos for example for creating screenshots of online videos. Key words useful for indexing online content most efficiently is Who, What, Where, Why and When and Where is also usually place - names and definitive dates with month, day and year really important in a summary for online videos.

Videos and taking screenshots, always important to remember videos reveal key frames in sequence, video born from storyboarding and animation in concept - videos are visual, move a video along and the scene usually changes, so sometimes actually a screenshot for example is better captured from the middle of a video to make a visual standalone static image more noticeable and to draw attention to some event that has happened and is significant.

Videos uploaded to Facebook the social network may be removed by the website service itself the social network when users object or maybe even removed by Facebook for some unknown reason. Facebook has guidelines for online content and actually Facebook may remove videos in line with its policies maybe referred to an editorial standard for online content on a shared platform or social network where there can be diffences of opions and differing points of view. This really makes the case for taking screenshots and keeping descriptions short with key summary text of the most pertinent or significant points. Preservation of digital online content may help some users through the recogition of events that have happened.

Media professionals can be busy, the world and events always move on - important actually to transmit really the most important also really the key information the most pertinent points most efficiently over computer networks - in some African nations slower networks around 2Mbps may be present such as Global Packet Radio Service and Universal Telecommunications networks.

Messages get broken into unordered data packets at the most fundamental level - call it the molecular level if you like certainly analysing molecules is what scientists do. Also the world is fast, BBC News journalists actually can work in conflict zones on the ground in disaster zones since the BBC is a global organisation so it merits discussion so really most important to transmit key information efficiently to support real world video more often, snippets of video with short summary and analysis.

Aberdeen actually has busy roads, sometimes fast traffic - in the evening roads can be quieter, but traffic can go faster in the city centre also along the beach front.

Hard Drive File Erasing Writes Random Data - When using One Pass Zeros or One Pass Random, the number of passes is fixed and cannot be changed. When the write head passes through a sector, it writes only zeros or a series of random characters.

Erasing files on a hard drive securely writes random data using binary digits zeros and ones actually zeros are mostly used to fill a hard drive with really random data that is blank, nothing or meaningless.

CCleaner software is free from Piriform and can wipe free space on a drive, prevent data being recovered with multiple levels of secure wiping also there is Eraser software which is portable software does much the same thing from Secure erasing to do a thorough job is very time-consuming and can take hours so really it might not be done often in practice.

Keeping your own data or copies of data your share online with others is adviseable - this is the benefit of simple text documents the TXT format or TXT files created with Windows Notepad also this is the benefit of screenshots easy screen capture using the Snipping Tool built into Windows 10 ten. Windows key plus Shift plus letter-S can take a screenshot easily using a computer keyboard using Windows 10, the version or variant of Windows likely in most common usage around end of July 2022 mid-Summer during British Summer Time. Extra information and using synonyms alternative words can promote better understanding teach also educate others.

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Data files such as videos can be bigger in file size than documents also photos. Video files represent convergence sound plus visual data - Analysing digital material is very time-consuming to properly tell a story and to organise also sequence events and time and events always move forward

Data files such as videos can be bigger in file size than documents also photos. Video files represent convergence sound plus visual data this is a multimedia format but multimedia also includes text and animation, which is supported very well by the social network now known as Meta for its business name to enhance or change also alter professional reputation.

Video with subtitles more accommodating in learning provision for those with visual impairments also are hard of hearing - watching is what deaf people do, listening is what those with partial sight do and there is the RNIB the Royal Institute for the Blind also there is North East Sensory Services or

Top marks always awarded by academics at University to consider multiple opposing perspectives, this is also considering others being respectful. Responsible oragnisations involved in recruitment screen applications to filter applicants - actually throughout society those with additional issues may normally have more barriers, may be overlooked also so such persons may have substantial mental health issues anyway.

Web browsers actually such as Google Chrome can be slow also unresponsive when video files are uploaded or shared on social networks from computers when online storage or cloud storage has been used to store video files. Lots of high file size video files stored in online storage can present an issue when one wants to port or migrate data to another competing platform - this is what makes localised storage and local copies of files also useful. Saving downloading large high capacity files increases performance over computer networks and actually some areas of countries also regions may have slower networks or access speeds to the Internet. Internet access can be patchy actually - still the Aberdeen area being oil rich actually has a fairly fast and responsive broadband Internet infrastructure.

Still actually many UK cities are major cosmopolitan areas with fast superfast broadband often England cities benefit first before Scottish ones for technology trials certainly this happened in connection with the mobile network Everything Everywhere or EE. Mobile data and access may not be everywhere in practical reality.

Big practical issue actually - cloud or online based world how do the police as a law enforcement organisation copy somone eles's files, well they need access to usernames and passwords - with this everyone needs to know their passwords for their digital accounts. Another issue crops up is that analysing digital material is very time-consuming to properly tell a story and to organise also sequence events and time and events always move forward, so police really always behind in real terms so this is what makes a visible police presence important, patrols, and engaging with community groups to help community members much more.

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SQL or Structured Query Language can be used to change data files and data can be entered with HTML forms using PHP backend processing - also SQL query language can be connected to XML data definition files for data storage in a low file size with structure

SQL or Structured Query Language is the query language used for interacting with databases, creating tables also inputting data as well as searching a database for text strings also using pattern matching to find specific clauses, deleting data as well as deleting tables and whole databases refer to drop table. SQL can work in conjunction with XML Extensible Markup Language - XML files are more like data files with structure like also data definition files.

XML is used to define data in essence. XML files are usually parsed also known as executed line by line on a web server in sequential order or in a series, a computer server than runs SQL database software at the backend, maybe even linked to PHP the Hypertext Preprocessor - a web-based scripting language.

SQL Server provides the XQuery feature to querying XML data type or querying with the XML column with the XPATH. Using XQuery, users can Insert, Update and Delete with the XML nodes and node values in an XML column. There is SQL and MySQL and Microsoft SQL in practice - Microsoft actually as its own version of SQL used with Microsoft Access and Visual Basic is the coding language that is linked to the Access database, which is used in connection with Access forms for more user-friendly interaction with an MS Access database. MySQL is free and is very commonly used on the World Wide Web also is commonly implemented as part of a digital ecosystem on the Web.

Online MySQL databases via a web-based information system can be linked to HTML forms or user entered form elements linked to a PHP script also for backend processing. PHP is online web-based programming - MySQL and PHP the Hypertext Preprocessor akin to the Cee programming language also like Linux shell scripts can also be used in conjunction with XML data definition files.

SQL also MySQL can be used to add data values to a database and a table within it also change data values.

MySQL key commands

Viewing all fields or entires in a table from a MySQL database - use the asterisk wildcard marked by a star which normally denotes everything all elements in a data block, basically a star is a blind catch all clause

Describe command also known as DESC and shows column names also constraints on columns.

Creating a database with a table with MySQL and adding values putting data into fields

An example of an HTML form to add sweets

<html> <head><title>Add sweets</title></head> <body> <form action="addsweet.php" method=GET> <p>

Item Name: <input type=text name=itemname size=20 maxlength=20><br />

Description: <input type=text name=itemdesc size=30 maxlength=60> <br>

Price (NNN.NN): <input type=text name=price size=6 maxlength=6><br/>

Image URL: <input type=text name=imageurl size=30 maxlength=30>

<input type=submit>




INSERT INTO table with four fields also adding values putting data values into a table

A MySQL INSERT INTO query to add data values to a database

In a nutshell, SQL or Structured Query Language can be used to change data files and data can be entered with HTML forms using PHP backend processing - also SQL query language can be connected to XML data definition files for data storage in a low file size with structure.

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Knowledge acquired is actually not visible unless real people put their learning experiences into some sort of more tangible form such as a website for example or collection of web pages and Lunar modules linked with the International Space Station and soon there will be more than one space station with China and India putting their own stations in orbit - independent blocks of code are modular and modules go to space on rocket ships known as payload data

Scottish charity Computers and Integration from Inverurie have long produced a booklet called Caring for your computer - it is further down this web page in updated form now in web page HTML format various revisions have happened over the years also various and much digital content has been written for this website along with changes to the website over time. The charity also had a premise in Huntly and one stage but it closed down and before the Inverurie premises, the charity was based in Thainstone. The website has slowly and gradually evolved with digital content being improved with the passage of time - individuals do usually gain experience as time marches on, gain or advance knowledge and sharing wisdom or acquired knowledge often leads to progress.

Through College training vocational courses also University education people do usually gain knowledge also wisdom and often there is an opportunity for practical training sometimes there is exams on technical courses with syllabi and there maybe report writing - technical work usually graded for assessment. Through the process of learning there is usually an acquisition of knowledge - a University education can provide a grounding, a theoretical underpinning in concepts and for technology education really a thorough grasp of technology concepts is vital to future success.

Significant also to consider computing also computer networks including the discipline of engineering which may be multidisciplinary split into separate areas is a very technical profession - difficult actually to remember everything and all the specific terms including acronyms and abbreviations - this is the benefit of actually the World Wide Web, search engines, the Internet and knowledge sharing - a technical community rallying round gathering sharing information via the world's shared medium. Google smart search and smart algorithms also rules of logic can really enable useful definitions when technical terms, specific terms actually are entered.

It is not totally clear how long-term information gets stored in the brain, but long-term memory can work differently to short-term memory which is more transient in a sense, people can panic under pressure, lose their cool, lose focus and forget certain events when under duress also in a stressed environment, possibly an unfamiliar environment away from home - some people with disabilities like routine and predictable scenarios. People may have thoughts and ideas - following up on ideas may lead to something or may not, some ideas maybe worth exploring in more detail.

Some more vulnerable persons can be victims of abuse - also algorithms from computing in a sense can enable predictions with patterns and sequences of code - the human Gnome involves sequencing unique pieces of DNA to improve healthcare.

Repetition in code is possible also called looping and this is what makes software development efficient also modular with software often written by individual computer programmers in teams where each programmer writes an independent block of code that is often combined with more code in a wider software application or software ecosystem. Lunar modules linked with the International Space Station and soon there will be more than one space station with China and India putting their own stations in orbit - independent blocks of code are modular and modules go to space on rocket ships known as payload data.

Multiple programmers and multiple pieces or blocks of code coming together is what necessitates testing also known as debugging to find issues correct and eliminate faults to ensure seamless working and continual operation of a computer program or software application.

It is actually not clear how dementia the forgetfulness condition in older people affects such persons since often there is little written about an individual's subjective experience. Subjective is what one person views and view points can be dogmatic and grounded not within the realm of perceived fairness or even not within reality - objective is suspension of judgement considering fairly multiple opposing perspectives.

Video really does show what someone else as witnessed - shared video can provoke intense debates and actually it is multiple people coming together that can really decide whether someone has been treated unfairly after discussing a shared video. This is one benefit of focus groups for product demonstrations - ability to test new technology for example on a diverse mix of people to evaluate product offerings and determine whether products meet a particular user need. Without people publishing and sharing, difficult to really know what people think inside organisations.

Knowledge acquired is actually not visible unless real people put their learning experiences into some sort of more tangible form such as a website for example or collection of web pages. This is what makes teachings in web page construction important for the digital age and digital ecosystem. Without some sort of tangible media showing knowledge, others may not be aware of someone's skills and talents or expertise. Really it is sharing combined with communication that can showcase someone's abilities - digital means of communication such as iPad tablet computers can be a vehicle of expression for more vulnerable persons. Without digital technology some more vulnerable persons could become victims to abuse more easily and someone better able to articulate themselves can really take advantage.

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The PhotostickOMNI three way adaptor for mobile tablet video extration also the standard round not flat screwdriver to open a computer's base unit - switching to Linux could prolong computer equipment when updates to Windows 10 end in 2025 since many computers are not capable of upgrading to Windows 11 also ability to magnify visual data can make computers more usable - buy electronics from, and

Multimedia convergence with audio and video is certainly more possible now - networks are getting faster and faster, there is wireless, mobile data and satellites in the mix as well as under the ocean cabling. In the beginning the high-speed light-guided networks needed to be built by engineers, roads may have been dug up for it and real patience was needed from home users and office workers alike. Digital skills education very important now more than ever to empower everyone get them up to speed to make the most of the digital age - Aberdeen City Council at Marischal College have a do it online culture.

Cannot see an image for looking in a sea of multiple files? Sometimes this can happen but also some people can have issues with focusing also manual adjustments, have eye sight issues also, it may happen more as people age, more older people in hospital eye clinics but those with visual impairments can suffer disprotionately.

Important actually to know how to change the size of images within a file browser of Windows 10. Hold down CONTROL key and use mouse scrollwheel back and forth to magnify visual image data in a file explorer window on Windows 10. Also click View menu and choose Extra large or Small icons - menus can work with keyboards and without a mouse.

Alternative means of performing actions using a computer is what broadens accessibility, computers really designed to be universal with adaptive aids unlike many shops on the highstreet.

Users may now be using Windows 11 - it is end of July 2022 really mid Summer in the North-East of Scotland. Most users still likely have not migrated from Windows 10 to the new Windows variant or version eleven 11 since rollout of new technology usually slow (there is also complacency to consider and user contentment and familiarity also routine and the status quo) and actually a lot of computers that came out or were released during 2018 are not capable of installing Windows 11 or upgrading. This means buying a new computer and actually updates for Windows 10 will end in 2025 when speed limits in Scottish towns and cities will be 20Mph.

Making computer equipment last longer is also recycling making older technology go further.

Actually switching to Linux or a version or flavour of it could actually enable users to get more life out of existing computer equipment when they are able to migrate data or have invested in online storage.

Ordinary computer users cannot just take their computer along to Currys PC World and ask for Linux or Ubuntu most user-friendly version of Linux after mobile Android platform - all computers come with Windows 11 when bought from shops usually. Electrical retailers like Currys - big name big brand instantly recognisable to many this is the highstreet presence - are the ones that are the resellers and they sell new technology, but Amazon sell refurbished technology computers with Windows 10 and often at reasonable price points more bang for your buck - bucks American and in Britain we refer to pound sterling, much of continental Europe use the euro, the Yen in Japan and the dollar in Australia.

There is also, another electrical retailer also there is, which also sells clothes but the clothes they sell are dearer than the high street and there is all the packaging associated with packaging products for home delivery and packaging really fills refuse bins.

Those with own private transport can visit the shops and actually buy more products with less wasteful packaging taking up space.

Some key tools - the PhotostickOMNI three adaptor to fit an iPad, Android tablet and smartphone also an iPhone and easily transfer photos and videos to a USB flash drive, convenient and easy data transfer with the helpful aid of simple graphical user interface and mobile phone app of the same name - PhotostickOMNI.

Only three adaptors or connectors nowadays for every modern mobile and tablet in the world - iPhones and iPads may use a separate adaptor, and there is a separate adaptor for Android but smartphones and tablets using Android tend to use the same connector.

Screwdrivers essential to open computer desktop computers - this is the one that usually unscrews a computer's main base unit for a desktop computer.

It may also work for laptops but sometimes laptops require small screwdrivers - this is embedded computing.

Embedded computing causes more nightmares for computer support personel making such people having to require advanced technical skills and develop real patience. This can actually push up computer repair costs.

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Contingency planning assessing risk in the digital age - really sharing information, educating others more people may lead to more offers of help. Risks can come from failure in shared computing resources but also real world physical disasters such as wildfires

Contingency planning assessing risk in the digital age - really sharing information, educating others more people may lead to more offers of help. Risks can come from failure in shared computing resources but also real world physical disasters such as wildfires.

A contingency plan is a plan devised for an outcome other than in the usual (expected) plan.

It is often used for risk management for an exceptional risk that, though unlikely, would have catastrophic consequences.

A contingency plan is a plan for a what if scenario that could ruin your project or business. A simple example of a contingency plan is to back up all website data in case your site gets hacked. If this scenario happens, you can then restore the data after regaining access and changing passwords.

A contingency plan is a proactive strategy that describes the course of actions or steps the management and staff of an organization need to take in response to an event that could happen in the future. It plays a significant role in business continuity, risk management and disaster recovery.

Risks actually can come from digital infrastructure issues affecting computing resources and all computer servers actually are constrained also based in the real physical world.

Different countries experience different natural events also known as natural phenomena at different times. Some countries really exploit the natural physical world think volcanic eruptions also geothermal energy potential around Iceland, but also think real raging infernos sparked by unpredicable also uncontrollable wildfires - actually need for high powered pressurised water canisters sometimes and helicopters to put out fires to help contain them, control their spread observe the extent of wildfires help people in distress.

This is happening now actually during Summer July 2022 in the Northern Hemisphere also around the Mediterraneon but Summer time in Australia is around Christmas time - the world is on the go 24 hours a day 7 seven days a week. Wakefulness cannot get to sleep, talk to family and friends on the other side of the world - this is company in the digital world offsets loneliness sometimes and widows may feel loneliness more than most especially since they may have endured a long life without computers and digital technology. It may not be clear where wildfires are happening until someone shoots and shares a video or writes about it documents their witness testimony and scary experience - only survivors tell tales and those that have lived a significant existance endured a harsh time.

Disaster planning in the digital age involves data back-ups because websites can include important information to get an organisation back up and running - this is the importance of sharing information, mirroring data also educating others and distributing computing resources.

Employees whether full-time, part-time or doing voluntary roles can retire, have accidents, get trapped also, so educating others is most important.

Contingency planning is also about evacuating everyone even the most infirm and disabled - for this vehicles with automated mechanical hoists are vital and also compassionate carers willing to help.

Disaster planning

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The names of igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks were clearly labelled at RGU TechFest end of May 2022 with chemicals poured in a test tube and big explosive chemical reaction highlighted targeted at young minds also children - also Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and 3D worlds the differences explained - very important for localised, distributed computing resources to share resources help everyone be understood, Net netrality also linked to equal rights and fairness

In computing education, specific step by step guides known as technical authoring can be useful to explain procedures this can lead to product user guides shipped with products, but actually concepts and definitions can provide a background grounding really help to explain and foster greater understanding ultimately technological progress when past events highlighted and discussed.

Concurrent Connections is the maximum amount of simultaneous connections your computer server can handle - a connection is established by a user visiting a website and also updates in the information world online via websites is linked to computer web page refreshes. F5 key on computer keyboard to refresh or reload a static web page - news feeds can use AJAX JavaScript technique to change content without the need for a page refresh initiated by a real world user.

The refresh rate of your display refers to how many times per second the display is able to draw a new image. This is measured in Hertz (Hz). For example, if your display has a refresh rate of 144Hz, it is refreshing the image 144 times per second.

It is common for applications on the World Wide Web to open multiple persistent Transport Control Protocol (TCP) connections so that different content can be served simultaneously from the same server. This actually links to commercial web hosts hosting multiple websites with different unique clients or paying customers to save money share resources - like a computer server - and this also links to virtual hosts on an Apache web server.

Virtual hosts or instances on a shared web server help Internet computer resources to be shared - resentment and anger could come in future from failures of Internet server architecture individuals losing data getting frustrated - very important for localised, distributed computing resources also for NAND flash for offline storage and with this saving data could really help someone to be better understood also sharing and explaining points of view. Virtual hosts on a web server really designed to optimise shared resources and save money manage data back-ups from the perspective of commercial web hosting firms.

Web hosting firms split a computer server, typically running Apache web server into virtual hosts - this is different from virtualisation which is a separate application window or virtual instance of a computer operating system with ability to run Ubuntu Linux on Microsoft Windows 10.

Virtual technologies big potential for resource sharing, testing and experimentation different actually from Virtual Reality which is often linked to 3D or 3-Dimensional Worlds.

Augmented Reality is actually smart specs with information overlay potential different again from Virtual Reality 3D worlds - augmented reality has roots to animation think storyboarding picture scenes denoting small changes the Beano and Dandy comics grew from this for concepts through to Toy Story film series first animated film and then there was Chicken Run also.

Smart specs may nowadays shoot video but still knowing when video recording is off and on is important - often need to pre-plan, pre-determine also known as pre-mediating to shoot video before the need arises may be difficult in real-time situations. Pre-mediated murder versus pre-mediated video shooting - needless to say shoot a video of a murder and really you will land yourself in deep trouble. Need also for LEDs or Light Emitting Diodes to detect change of status and know when video recording is happening for real and also upmarket video smart specs include Ray Ban smart glasses but then there is Facebook Stories - Facebook the company now known as Meta likely after HTML meta tag. There is also metamorphism.

Definitions important for clarity and explain avoid ambiguity multiple meanings which links to interpretation and Autism is making sense of the world - Metamorphism is a process that changes pre-existing rocks into new forms because of increases in temperature, pressure, and chemically active fluids. Metamorphism may affect igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks. These rocks at RGU TechFest exhibit this year end of May 2022 at Sir Ian Wood School of Computing building Garthdee.

Demonstration actually at RGU TechFest of chemicals poured in test tubes around rocks - big explosive potential here as demonstrated by what looked like young students at RGU Techfest to children highlighting explosive danger. This is a chemical or chain reaction also it is University educators targeting children, young minds, school children in Aberdeen. The names of igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks were clearly labelled at RGU TechFest aimed at school children reminding others older people about their Geography education and the names of rocks. We can all see rocks outside but actually rocks are subdivided into different types and the study of rocks is known as Geology.

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Westhill in Aberdeenshire in North-East Scotland is the global centre of excellence in subsea engineering so says the sign on the entrance road from Inverurie. Aberdeen Science Centre core focus is robotics revamped during 2020 and Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths is rising in importance

Westhill in Aberdeenshire in North-East Scotland is the global centre of excellence in subsea engineering so says the sign on the entrance road from Inverurie. Aberdeen Science Centre core focus is robotics revamped during 2020 and Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths is rising in importance.

Google uses smart algorithms and search results can be very timely - important also to verify also search results, but actually careful selection of material can result in very informative, educational content.

Important actually to break down the complex field of computing also computer networks and electronics simplifying as much as possible to help newcomers to the respective fields to understand, develop an interest and progress their learning - electric vehicles or EV vehicles are increasing in usage. All these fields are actually male dominant - really rare actually to really simplify understanding so that woman understand.

Educators in computing fields may not be the best communicators - really having a firm grasp of language with first rate communication skills is really important to broad widespread digital skills education.

Commuications can actually mask crimes also in a very real sense, vital also the work of the security services in intercepting communications with the view to deter criminals also detect and stop crimes before happen.

Subsea firms in and around the area of Westhill include Subsea Corrosion Ltd, Subsea Controls Engineering Consultancy also Subsea 7 in the present day July 2022.

The Aquanaut is a subsea robotic solution that can serve both as a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and as an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Based on the requirements, the subsea robot transforms from AUV mode into an ROV.

Underwater robots do a lot these days. They can be programmed to go to remote, dangerous, and often previously unexplored parts of the ocean to measure its key characteristics—from salinity and temperature to the speed and direction of currents. They map the seafloor and benthic environments in outstanding detail.

Marine robots - Robots perform a variety of tasks, from raising fish to analyzing shipwrecks, and are helping marine biologists, water engineers, landscape developers, and even the police do their jobs better.

This is the world's first unmanned, underwater robot or glider - to cross an ocean basin, the pioneering Scarlet Knight. The robotic glider, also known as RU27, can dive to depths of 200 meters (660 feet) to collect data such as temperature, how salty the water is, and the speed and direction of ocean currents.

An AUV operates independently from the ship and has no connecting cables, whereas ROVs are connected to an operator on the ship. AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle and is commonly known as uncrewed underwater vehicle.

Dive length depends on factors like depth and weather, but as long as there are no technical operations, there are no limits on how long an ROV can stay down. On average, dives typically last around eight hours. In comparison, a dive in a human occupied vehicle typically lasts five hours.

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Open data and dates may be changed by a computer hacker or because of anomalies to suit a given purpose also documents can be defaced

Open Data Aberdeen Council Initiative Big Trend of Now -

Find open data from the UK government -

The Maths mod operator divison by remainder from Computing

Modulo also Mod or Remainder Operator returns the remainder of the two numbers after division

100 or one hundred days from now what day will it be? 12 twelve times 8 eight is 96 - four off one hundred. The four is significant known as the remainder, so if this is Friday in 100 days time it will be Tuesday. This is actually a very useful, practical application of Mod in the real world and the Maths mod operator to computing.

Actually it can be difficult when going back in time to determine what happened and then there is computer hackers and data integrity to consider.

Really patient medical information is often closed - there is doctor patient confidentiality. There is likely many cases with strange anomalies - actually anomalies is often linked to the data world also to databases including not limited to SQL Structured Query Language. Ordinary people and patients should really obtain their medical records their personal medical information to look through their history to better plan their future health care needs make sense of their past health history - this is e-healthcare and also it is the information flow in a hospital or healthcare setting and also it may not be coherent or as ordered or efficient as it could be.

The role of the average medic is to save lives - it may not actually be to look out for their long term well being of patients although it should be, to prevent escalating revenge attacks and attacks driven by pure or total spitefulness also hatred. Hate crime can be an issue often ethnic minorities may be on the receiving end.

There may actually be errors in retrieved data from the past and inconsistencies which could make a written story totally unreliable, bear in mind also people often share names do a Google search for your own name to reveal many similar names, some names can come from plants also and from herbs and spices - video is more lifelike actually, a visual and truer representation.

Always remember the Barbonic plague - this was brutal period in the history of the world with the black death also a significant illness. Doctors really fought hard to save lives, applying bandages and torunaquets - also that still happens in conflict and warzones far too often.

There are three types of anomalies from the SQL data world - update, deletion, and insertion anomalies. An update anomaly is a data inconsistency that results from data redundancy and a partial update.

For example, each employee in a company has a department associated with them as well as the student group they participate in. So anomolies linked to redundancy this is also linked to copying data from computer to computer - server computers can be based in server farms built in RAID5 storage, a redundant system of hard drives where data files get mirrored across other hard drives to give more redundancy.

Multiple hard drives usually used to mirror also keep user data safe stored online - the process of copying can result in files becoming corrupt. It can happen on Windows 10 - file unreadable, so really file conversion is really key to preserving data long time.

JPEG photographs been on the go for a long time but now modern Apple devices produce photos in HEIC and actually these files can be problematic to open on Windows 10 without codecs. What is a codec? Well it is file optimisation technique or algorithm may be formed by University academics actually who invest in research also such techniques may involve pattern matching and pixelation complex mathematics actually.

Codecs built into MP4 video standard may make optimisation of data also video over computer networks such as the Internet more efficient. There are competing video formats such as WMV Windows Movie format then Apple Mov or Movie format. These are the most popular. There is also AVCHD linked to Blu-ray and High Definition video from Snoy Japanese firm - Sony long been linked with quality.

Database anomalies are flaws in databases because of poor planning and storing everything in a flat database. Anomalies occur when there is too much redundancy in the database. Poor table design has related data scattered over various tables. Any new change in the database should be updated in many places.

Update Anomaly - 10 columns in a table out of which 2 are called employee Name and employee address.

Insertion Anomaly

Deletion Anomaly - This anomaly indicates unnecessary deletion of important information from the table.

Too much redundancy and copying may produce anomalies so perhaps making sense of data is better - taking ownership of data, trying or seeking to understand also interpret data. This may lead on to explaining also educating others, but still data held long term may be unreliable. Data held long term is linked to dates but actually dates may be changed online - putting dates into video may actually prove more robust be harder to change.

PHPMyAdmin often used in web hosting to manage MySQL databases - to export back-up databases linked to websites, but also to migrate a website created using a Content Management System on a local computer to web hosting for creating a website with published information presented in a clear manner and easy to update via a web-based interface instead of uploading files using FTP File Transfer Protocol client software from Windows 10 on a Desktop computer.

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Pythagorus, Pi 2.14 constant data value and US President James Abram Garfield also STEM trend of the times Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths

From Computers and Integration - Remembering US President James Abram Garfield - the assasinated President founded Pythagoras the basis for maths and now STEM Science Technology Engineering and Maths is rising in importance. This is also Pi or 2.14, the special number with two decimal places.

It is very helpful to write a description for online shared videos best actually to be concise and preferrable to use key words actually like key search terms also technical vocabulary words really ideal to direct users to the most appropriate videos shared online

The constant of Pi also 2.14 helps us understand our universe with greater clarity - the new telescope launched the James Webb Telescope around Christmas 2021 really telescopes look into space, look for other galaxies. Space, telescopes and STEM is rising in importance - really significant for those with a technical background in computing to educate others. The definition of Pi the constant 2.14 inspired a new notion of the measurement of angles, a new unit of measurement. This important angle measure is known as radian measure and gave rise to many important insights in our physical world.

A radian is an angle whose corresponding arc in a circle is equal to the radius of the circle.

Radian is not median values and this is maths linked also to the data digital and information world also to computing.

The median is the middle value in a set of data. First, organize and order the data from smallest to largest.

To find the midpoint value, divide the number of observations by two. If there are an odd number of observations, round that number up, and the value in that position is the median.

Operators used in Cee computer programming

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The Maths mod operator divison by remainder from Computing

Modulo also Mod or Remainder Operator returns the remainder of the two numbers after division

100 or one hundred days from now what day will it be? 12 twelve times 8 eight is 96 - four off one hundred. The four is significant known as the remainder, so if this is Friday in 100 days time it will be Tuesday. This is actually a very useful, practical application of Mod in the real world and the Maths mod operator to computing.

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Multipass and Hyper V with Oracle Virtual Box which is open source virtualisation software to run for example Ubuntu Linux or maybe Linux Mint user-friendly on Microsoft Windows 10 - command line interaction enables a router on the backbone of the Internet to focus or carry out its core function of switching data packets with minimum delays or latency for maximum efficiency making also essential equipment go further last longer without needing maintenance

Need for something called Multipass as defined by Ubuntu help documentation also Hyper V or you will likely run into errors when trying to run a virtual instance of Linux on Windows 10. Running a Virtual copy or instance of Linux within Windows did not use to require this step and actually virtualisation is quite useful to run older versions of Microsoft Windows on the latest operating system.

Actually Windows XP was around for 10 ten years and no updates get produced for it any longer, but still a lot of legacy games run on Windows XP. Possible actually to install drivers to copy files on a host machine like Windows 10 the main core operating system where virtual instances of older versions of Windows for example are run this can enable back and forth copying of data and data transfer also enabling organisations that run legacy software to continue to use it while also having purchased new computers with up-to-date Microsoft Windows software.

Windows 10 Command Prompt - type cmd for command into Windows search box or Windows System menu near the bottom of Windows 10 start menu need to scroll down quite a bit usually. The string below installs Hyper V with Multipass necessary for a virtual copy of another operating system in another separate window using VirtualBox on a host machine likely Windows 10 at the current time.

C:\WINDOWS\system32> multipass set local.driver=virtualbox. From Notepad or a web browser this command can be easily copied to a Windows 10 Command Prompt that is the benefit of Graphical User Interfaces to system administration but Linux servers with command only interfaces such as Cisco routers can be lightweight on resources.

In the case of Cisco routers through a console or admin Telnet session, command line interaction enables a router on the backbone of the Internet to focus or carry out its core function of switching data packets with minimum delays or latency for maximum efficiency making also essential equipment go further last longer without needing maintenance. So really Cisco router configuration is really quite a complex skill to be mastered - it is really important to educate young engineers for an Internet connected future. Telnet is often used for remote log-in - Linux also has Emacs a basic text editor on Linux based systems that is light on system resources and the TXT file format is universally supported with also support on Android tablets. The echo command on Linux can put text strings into TXT files by means of the redirection indicator or greater than symbol >.

In a nutshell - Multipass and Hyper V with Oracle Virtual Box which is open source virtualisation software to run for example Ubuntu Linux or maybe Linux Mint user-friendly on Microsoft Windows 10 - need for Multipass also Hyper V or you will likely run into errors when trying to run a virtual instance of Linux on Windows 10. Fedora Linux more technical often used in University Computing departments and uses rpm file extensions for applications instead of deb for Debian like Ubuntu Linux.

sudo apt-get command in Ubuntu Linux for example is used to install software from a Terminal screen like a Windows 10 Command Prompt - right-click empty Desktop in Ubuntu the most user-friendly form of Linux also the most popular then click Terminal to launch a command console for executing commands. In Fedora Linux, yum update command updates all software on a Fedora Linux system at once is efficient - go away have a coffee let yum update work for you this is efficient system administration. Android Linux tends to be the mobile tablet form of Linux but there is Remix OS which can run Android apps from a desktop computer also PC (Personal Computer) or a laptop.

From VirtualBox window, click Machine and New to start off the process of creating a new virtual instance or another copy of an operating system in window on a host machine the current running or live operating system perhaps or possible Windows 10 if Windows 10 is the operating system the user is using at the present time.

Errors can sometimes can result when running the multipass command such as the file is not recognizeed as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file. Sometimes there is a need to resolve errors. This may happen when Multipass is not installed.

Multipass can be download from also known as Hyper V - Hyper V is needed to run VirtualBox. Multipass requires Windows 10 Pro or Professional and actually sometimes when you buy the Home version of Windows 10 or 11, you may get the Professional version if a reseller does not have computers with Home versions installed ready for resale this could happen with buying from computer sellers or build computers to order such as Mesh Computers - see

A computer reboot of Windows 10 may be necessary after installing Multipass or Hyper V.

When a virtual interface opens such as for Ubuntu Linux on Windows 10 - you connect an ISO file downloaded from the Ubuntu website, this is the latest version of Ubuntu maybe known as LTS (Long Term Support). ISO files can also be burned to disc or DVD for example by using CD Burner XP Pro.

An ISO file of a computer operating system such as a version of Linux can be used in a virtual interface or window to run a computer setup procedure as normal. An operating system set up procedure typically involves a series of steps clicking Next. ISO files get mounted through VirtualBox the software now from Oracle but previously incepted by Sun Microsystems to really install a virtual copy of an operating system within a host machine such as Windows 10. The virtual copy is called a guest - the host is the live running computer system a user is using.

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Media streaming from computer to TV or tele actually LG SmartShare really pioneered it with OLED large screen TVs - actually Amazon have Alexa with Kindle Fire tablets voice activated assistant say Alexa and then issue voice commands to control smart appliances around your home (Tele Addicts was Noel Edmonds think also Deal or No Deal negotiate with banker over the phone, TV quiz with numbered boxes and random prizes of money)

Media streaming is possible actually with the open source VLC media player, but it may be hard to configure for the average user, but LG SmartShare is Windows 7, 8 and 10 software that runs on Windows and it profiles computers or picks up scavenges computers for media files such as photos and video. LG SmartShare really was novel, innovative was on the go around 2015 in large screen TVs or televisisons of around 2000-2500 pounds or that price point or price bracket. Picking up or detecting files can be slow but the pay off is that from your sofa you can watch media including photos and videos in your living room from your large OLED television set. SmartShare can also playback music files from your television which are hosted on your computer - also USB flash drives can be loaded with MP3s for example for playback on a television set. Some TVs may not support USB flash drives and you may need a USB external drive.

Media streaming and SmartShare can be useful for home made movies enable video playback and memories are made of this. Still middle age people also millennial children actually may have grown up in the early days before widespread adoption of the Internet, and actually memories can get lost in time and space when not recorded.

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YouTube often is video viewing from televisions using set top boxes also smart TVs as is the BBC iPlayer sometimes also Demand Five but there is ITV on demand playback services such as STV viewer

YouTube often is video viewing from televisions using set top boxes also smart TVs as is the BBC iPlayer sometimes also Demand Five but there is ITV on demand video playback services such as STV viewer - watch again video TV programmes at your own convenience in your own time also relaxed learning at your own pace for documentaries which can be educational. People less often stream or watch Facebook videos using a television - Facebook is more for mobile video upload with consistent 16:9 video aspect ratio to maintain consistency cross platform but the user interface is more full featured from a laptop also a Desktop computer. Access Facebook from a computer or laptop, users can more easily review videos, look back using the Timeline video showing feature that is also Facebook's characteristic news feature. Looking back at videos is easier when actually users write dates in descriptions - this makes Facebook video sharing more verifiable in a sense, friends on Facebook may also include family members and work colleagues in some cases.

Facebook videos more likely to be watched via a constrictive mobile, tablet screen with less bells and whistles in the user interface - laptop viewing and browsing of Facebook content is more full featured.

Set top boxes usually powered by object oriented Java software that is cross platfrom runs on Windows, Mac and Linux. Java programming structures like tree structure and uses name also value pairs to reference objects in a file structure - this is file definition in a computer construct. File structures usually broken apart by dots similar in a sense to a Micrsoft Fully Qualified Domain Name.

Important to really understand your acquaintenances and know who your close friends are, who you trust more because actually Facebook sharing of photos and videos can be controlled with both Groups and Facebook Lists. Lists often less obvious for content sharing to users who see photos and videos in their Facebook Timeline feed. Facebook Lists really enable anyone to control who they share content with but actually sharing good imaginary, being nice and respecful is better. What children may appreciate in later life is looking back at fond memories of their childhood when they really looked happy having a good time with parents and grandparents also Uncles and Aunties.

Many people share photos of their children, others who know them actually saving them when the images are a positive representation of happy times could really bring bank fond memories when they are shared again at a later date. Photos and videos often make memories - people often post at random times on Facebook. For more control of reliving good times, people actually need to make an effort to save photos and videos also organise too using file hierarchies or tree like structures for folder definition with dates and places also descriptions. Small Facebook groups actually could be used to give family members good shared experiences of times gone by remember events more instead of forgetting.

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Alerting others to solutions can lead to digital empowerment and Photos captured alongside videos can help individuals to know when they are in a wrong folder in Windows 10 also Convert a Microsoft server computer to a domain controller to enable user log-in and authentication access to resources also shared files via a username and passwords using command dcpromo also CSS code for a standard website navigation bar to ease navigation and simplicity also making them uniformity in appearance always wise since consistency leads to expectations

Learning from mistakes that's this web page in part but not completely since computing over time disected trends highlighted - alerting others to solutions can lead to digital empowerment and Photos captured alongside videos can help individuals to know when they are in a wrong folder in Windows 10 also thumbnails, visual Tiles and picture representations very positive. A picture is often worth a thousand words but accompanying text can add greater meaning, help others to understand, teach and educate spread knowledge and wisdom. Words add more dimention to pictures and video is convergence with audio also narrative and nowadays high speed multimedia light-guided networks are present in the North-East of Scotland. Really, text was more useful in times gone by due to slower networks think dial-up modem 56Kbps connections where home users may have connected also disconncted from the phone line to also enable people to talk on phones in households. ADSL modems also known as broadband faster downloads over uploads really enabled web surfing and use phones at the same time or simultaneously.

Important to discuss folder location and user orientation within a file system or file hierarchy or tree like structure in Windows 10 can change because users often browse files change the folder themselves as they look for files to find a file previously opened, created, downloaded or shared - files downloaded from the Internet go into Downloads folder or directory actually located under Quick Access in Windows Explorer left-side panel. User interfaces in web-based interfaces are usually different for each individual website but a navigation bar for each separate website can ease navigation when web links are obvious or apparent in plain sight.

Usually in Windows 10 the last folder a user has viewed is shown by default when a user opens a dialog box to source or insert files for example, but frequent browsing of a file hierarchy searching for files may lead to users being unable to remember which folder they were last in.

Digital filesystems are like namespaces - Microsoft use FQDN or Fully Qualified Domain Name to refer to files in a naming structure.

FQDN refers to computers and their location on a network within a namespace also within a domain type system - domains like a cluster of computers and multiple domains are known as forests.

Convert a Microsoft server computer to a domain controller to enable user log-in and authentication access to resources also shared files via a username and passwords using command dcpromo in the Run box in Windows 10. Usernames and passwords are a hallmark of domains, clusters of computers and sometimes there is LDAP or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Usernames and passwords facilitate secure file and folder sharing across organisational networks. Authentication actually usernames and passwords might have come into effect to protect sensitive commercial information but also in the case of Scottish Councils children and vulnerable adults who may need support of social services.

This web page always helps me - reusable CSS code or style sheet for presentation of a navigation bar for a website, navbar's usually central to ease of use for websites, navigation and simplicity also making them uniformity in appearance always wise since consistency leads to expectations in marketing and advertising - Great website would not like to see it disappear great many web programming tutorials on this website to increase the numbers of people creating websites to perhaps tell stories.

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It is very helpful to write a description for online shared videos best actually to be concise and preferrable to use key words actually like key search terms also technical vocabulary words really ideal to direct users to the most appropriate videos shared online

For videos uploaded and shared online via Facebook for example but also YouTube, it is helpful to write a description best actually to be concise and preferrable to use key words actually - the traditional priniples of journalism work well for online content where text is summarised with the most important details first. Be concise use key words like or akin to key search terms, words or phrases someone might search for using search engine Google.

Historically the meta keywords tag in HTML code for web pages were how web pages were described. Key words actually are useful for indexing content via search engines - the key words meta tag might not longer get used in practical reality, but search engines still index content shared online.

While the key words meta tag is not used, key words are still the basis of indexing content online. Trying to think about key search terms and using them in content shared can help users find appropriate online content.

Also, key words also is useful to summarise content. For technical content, key words can include professional subject matter and specific industries can have a technical vocabulary.

Some keywords from computing are RAM, NVRAM, NAND flash, AMD, NiVidia (the latter are makers of graphics hardware). ARM is the maker from Cambridge of processers for mobiles and tablets - ARM big major player on the world stage. Nividia American firm wanted to takeover ARM - debates erupted.

Useful key words is place where a video is captured also the date coupled with why the content has been captured. Who, what, why, where (also like place) and when are really the main phrases or search terms to think about - actually these questions have hallmarks or hooks into traditional print journalism. Keywords or key search terms is useful actually for taking screen grabs of online shared videos for creating websites with thumbnails small images and hyperlinks akin to video websites like the BBC iPlayer.

Really Facebook is useful for viewing online shared videos, but the web interface can be slow to browse actually to find a video. Bespoke creations and websites with videos linked also embedded can actually help users to find, discover and watch videos. Websites can be created where connected videos are linked in themes also cross-referenced with appropriate online content or digital material.

Creating screen grabs with Snipping Tool in Windows 10 for example think a year dash month dash date dash description which includes key words or key search terms.

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iPhone photo also video horizontal or vertical orientation? Horizontal video capture better for scenes outside to reveal immersive video suitable for sharing on social networks also social media sites - Facebook big social network, YouTube and Vimeo is a social media website and multiple media sharing sites can spread video files around preserving digital video content

iPhone photo also video horizontal or vertical orientation? Holding an iPhone horizontal actually may result in wider angle viewpoints or video files actually - hold an iPhone in portrait mode will likely lead to narrower video frames but portrait mode is more discrete actually can record events in video in a manner that does not attract attention in the same way as holding an iPhone in horizontal video mode when capturing video.

Really actually people behave differently when they are aware of video capture and actually it is better to respect others be upfront about video capture but being more discrete may capture more authentic genuine behaviour with audio or sound also. Videos outside actually does reveal what really goes on - actually most of the time it is real people getting on with their own lives going about their daily lives respecting others minding their own business.

There is great detail outside in an urban built up environment such as Aberdeen for example new housing developments - 2000 Council houses are being built right across in Aberdeen during July 2022, some in Kincorth others in Tillydrone not really the most affluent areas but there are likely other areas as well - it is local people actually across a City in a given locality that are aware of developments, more accutely aware putting up with roadworks also dust and debris, building sites and such sites no playground for children.

In a nutshell, iPhone photo also video horizontal or vertical orientation? Horizontal video capture better for scenes outside to reveal immersive video suitable for sharing on social networks also social media sites - Facebook big social network, YouTube, and Vimeo is a social media website and multiple media sharing sites can spread video files around preserving digital video content.

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Sample JavaScript code for form to get user input and check it also code to get information on a user's screen resolution to help improve display or presentation information - JavaScript can provide interactive elements to a web page also control user input provide form field validation useful to check user input to ensure it is accurate against a valid range

In the head section of an HTML page, JavaScript code can be inserted in the script HTML element - JavaScript can provide interactive elements to a web page also control user input provide form field validation useful to check user input to ensure it is accurate against a valid range.

Elements in HTML forms have name value pairs in a hierarchy similar in a sense to the Java programming language which is object-oriented. Java is platform independent runs as standalone blocks of computer code on Windows, Mac and Linux and runs inside PVR Personal Video Recorder boxes that enable multiple programme recording from set top boxes with multiple tuners, and JavaScript is contained in web pages - can be contained in the body section or the head section, but always within a script container tag.

There is the basic script actually to validate input contained in the function validate below. The word form within brackets is a parameter - paramater values can change be swapped in and out of functions in JavaScript, this is changing values in an independent block of code.

Really the JavaScript code below contains code to obtain information also about a user's computer or web browser such as the screen resolution - this may be handy to better understand users, know if they may be struggling with low resolution screens on computer monitors, viewing also from a desktop computer magnified display or a mobile handheld device.

JavaScript functions can be called or loaded on web page load with reference in the HTML body tag via the onLoad event handler used to call a function or set or procedures or block of JavaScript web code - JavaScript really useful for checking user input to see if it is valid against certain criteria to actually get better more accurate information that matches the intentions of the information seeker - the person that has designed a survey or questionnaire.

Forms usually have a submit button at the end - they enable a user to submit a form, send data perhaps via email or maybe populate a database.

The onSubmission and onClick event handlers actually can be used with the submit button when sending data using a form.

HTML forms elements have name also value pairs - adding a name to a form field HTML element usually represented by the input HTML element assigns a unique idetifier to a field, values actually is the data entered in a field by a user. Values or user data entered can actually be picked up by scripts sometimes and usually nowadays PHP scripts - this is how JavaScript links to PHP the Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP is usually associated with backend processing on the web but web pages can have a dot php file extension.

<input type="submit" value="Submit">

<script type="text/javascript">

function validate ( form ) {

// ** Validation of staff name **

if (form.userinputcheck.checked == true && form.staffname.value == "") {

alert("Please enter your name.");


return false ;


// ** End of validation of staff name **

function sniff_user_browser_settings() {


colors = window.screen.colorDepth;

document.form.color.value = Math.pow (2, colors);

if (window.screen.fontSmoothingEnabled == true)

document.form.fonts.value = "Yes";

else document.form.fonts.value = "No";

document.form.navigator.value = navigator.appName;

document.form.version.value = navigator.appVersion;

document.form.colordepth.value = window.screen.colorDepth;

document.form.width.value = window.screen.width;

document.form.height.value = window.screen.height;

document.form.maxwidth.value = window.screen.availWidth;

document.form.maxheight.value = window.screen.availHeight;

document.form.codename.value = navigator.appCodeName;

document.form.platform.value = navigator.platform;

document.form.language.value = window.navigator.language;

document.form.useragent.value = window.navigator.userAgent;

document.form.userlanguage.value = window.navigator.userLanguage;

document.form.systemlanguage.value = window.navigator.systemLanguage;

if (navigator.javaEnabled() < 1)"No";

if (navigator.javaEnabled() == 1)"Yes";


//End hiding-->

<body onload="sniff_user_browser_settings()">

<form name="form" action="example.php" method="pos" onSubmit="return validate(this)">

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Older people and some professions in the business world may feel intimidated by the digital world and its nuances, compatibility issues also some young people may not be intereted in computers, but digital skills education can lead to empowerment - universal standards also common user interfaces often enable more uptake or greater adoption in digital services - also variables in programming synonymous with the changing state of local environments which links to adaptability and the need for humans to respond to changing conditions on the ground and blinking lights or LEDs can alert humans to issues

Young people are increasingly tech savvy but not every young person is interested in computers, some young people may grow up on farms in Aberdeenshire real notspots for Internet connectivity and patchy Internet (speak of disadvantage and an unfair situation) - also older people may feel intimidated by the digital world and its nuances, compatibility issues. This is what makes educating, explaining and breaking down complex terms really useful maybe important even - being able to better use digital devices to accomplish tasks is empowerment in the digital age.

Actually professionals including architects, surveyors also those in legal professions may use computers and find them frustrating - file format conversions can really make people want to reset, take a break away from a computer, go for a coffee, engage in office banter, unwind in the evening at home with a Scotch Whiskey and there is working in the information world where there is lots of changes, mistakes which can be frustrating so really a more visual means to see what has happened or what is going on can be insightful may streamline professions even if people do not like what they are reading, hearing or listening to.

Whiskey a popular beverage across the world actually appealing to a wide range of people from manual workers those in the trades after a hard days work or graft to business professionals. Councils in Scotland can mandate or require teachers use specific software and other employees in the public sector.

This is born from conformance also uniformity - universal standards often enable more uptake or greater adoption in digital services - standard user interfaces can drive greater appeal ease of use think Facebook but also think standard audio control symbols think play, pause, rewind and fast forward often familiar to most people and often found on Hi-Fi equipment but also on TV remote controls which usually use Infrared also often found on radios in cars. Some drivers may spend a longer time commuting than others - some routes can really be more congested and major trunk roads motorways can have more lanes to cope with more traffic. Fibre optic networks often increase speed can create the perception of more lanes on a motorway enable the ability to handle more traffic - data traffic in the case of data networks.

Standards also found right throughout computer networks - 802.11 is the wireless network standard think WiFi, wireless network adaptors embedded in smartphones also tablets - desktop computers usually need a USB dongle or PCI network interface card or PCIExpress the mini one, the small white component on a computer motherboard - wireless network adaptors usually have a small aerial like antenna connected to an interface or adaptor card.

Education over time enables adaptablility and ability to respond to changing conditions, survive also - knowledge really is power and lifelong learning is really a very powerful concept and actually Google searches for specific technical terms can really advance knowledge when combined with user generated websites.

Pascal was a computer programming language used in education and is still useful for teaching - it often used the term var alongside variables, other programming languages use this term, but it is not always essential.

Variables are data values that can change when the user is asked a question, for example, their age - everyone does get older and age advances often too quickly. Old before you know it and people like to be reminded of still being young - think anti aging cream making wrinkles disappear also face cream and moisturiser. We need to teach computing to men and women equally to improve life chances. Variables may change during program execution. A variable is a memory location. It has a name that is associated with that location.

Variables linked to memory and buffer locations in the architecture of a computer processor the brain of a computer that performs calculations per second often very quickly or at high speed in the case of supercomputers also computers with multiple processors or dual cores threaded processors - think the hyper V processor big number crunching.

Computer applications are born built around variables and passing parameters - events throughout life are always or usually variable. This links to the changing state of local environments which links to adaptability and the need for humans to respond to changing conditions on the ground. Changing states of conditions may be picked up by LEDs or Light Emitting Diodes these are the blinking status lights on routers in homes and business across the land, can show computers connected to a home router and tell if their is a connectivity problem - humans need indicators, need to be alerted to events.

Alerts are also part of computer networks and also part of Windows 10 in Event Manager - events synonymous with error logging. Many errors happen actually, human operators may not always be aware of them, also humans may not understand them also, but understanding errors could really lead onto improvements and for safety critical systems that could save lives.

Constants do not change in value during a computer program's execution.

Parameters allow us to pass information or instructions into functions and procedures - parameters may be used in brackets linked to function names in JavaScript the web programming language. They are useful for numerical information such as stating the size of an object. Parameters are the names of the information that we want to use in a function or procedure. The values passed in are called arguments. Many a politican also solicitor are familiar with arguments and debating.

A network alert notifies a network administrator that a key health or performance indicator has exceeded its set threshold. This real-time notification allows the administrator to quickly detect, diagnose, and resolve any associated issues.

Alerts actually in a computer network can be trigged by ICMP protocol packets or Information Control Messaging Protocol.

ICMP is the error alerts in a computer network used to determine if network data packets have reached their destination safely. ICMP data packets can assist troubleshooting also fault finding tracing errors or faults for network administrators.

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Direct Memory Access really linked to input and output controllers - such as sound cards, network cards and SCSI cards, it is the process of transferring data without the involvement of the processor itself - Swap memory is virtual or extended memory in a hard disk file and it boosts a computer's physical RAM memory capacity and enables more applications to run simultaneously

Direct memory access (DMA) is the process of transferring data without the involvement of the processor itself. It is often used for transferring data to and from input and output devices. A separate DMA controller is a hardware device and it is required to handle the transfer. The controller notifies the DSP processor that it is ready for a transfer.

Standard DMA, also called third-party DMA, uses a DMA controller. A DMA controller can generate memory addresses and initiate memory read or write cycles. It contains several hardware registers that can be written and read by the CPU. These include a memory address register, a byte count register, and one or more control registers.

Transferring the data without the involvement of the processor will speed up the read-write task. DMA reduces the clock cycle requires to read or write a block of data. Implementing DMA also reduces the overhead of the processor.

Most sound cards today actually use two DMA channels - one must be chosen from DMAs 1, 2, or 3, while the other can be any free DMA channel (and so is selected from the less-used 5, 6 or 7). DMA1 is also a popular choice for many other peripherals, largely for historical reasons.

Most devices stay away from DMA0 since it is used by the system. Do not use DMA0 for peripherals - if devices are set to use DMA0 but there is a conflict, there could be a problem with your computer motherboard.

Tape accelerator cards default to DMA2 and DMA2 is often not a source of conflicts - used to traditionally with floppy disk controllers.

Network cards can also use DMA.

Sound cards tend to use DMAs 0 to 3 or certainly this range is reserved for sound coming out of the computer.

DMA3 is the busiest channel on a computer and hardly any devices use DMA channels 5, 6 and 7.

Direct Memory Access really linked to input and output controllers - such as sound cards, network cards and SCSI cards.

Virtual memory is a combination of RAM (physical system memory) and reserved hard disk space - swap files used for virtual memory on a hard disk drive. Swap files are stored files and data that expands memory and RAM in a computer.

Swap files or virtual memory in Windows 10 can store both program code and data when applications are running. When a program is running, parts of a program can get swapped out to the hard disk - this enables more applications to run, basically swap files extend memory capacity create virtual memory. Swap memory boosts a computer's memory capacity and enables more applications to run simultaneously.

From the Windows 10 Start menu, scroll down to Windows Administrative Tools, then Resource Monitor. Click the Memory tab to see how much physical memory your computer is using.

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The Good Things Foundation says that a digital standard of living is really - about being able to communicate, connect and engage with opportunities safely and with confidence

The Good Things Foundation aims to make everyone digitally able, equal and safe. The organisation seeks to build a digital nation, empower people to exploit and use digital technology - this is also digital inclusion.

The Good Things Foundation says that a digital standard of living is really - about being able to communicate, connect and engage with opportunities safely and with confidence.

The Data Poverty Lab linked with Nominet during 2021 and Nominet in the United Kingdom is the Internet company that assigns domain names leases them out to customers such as commercial firms who sell domain names and web hosting.

From the Good Things Foundation - Millions of people in the UK don’t have the basic digital skills they need to thrive in today’s world.

Good Things Foundation dot org - A lack of digital skills and access can have a huge negative impact on a person’s life, leading to poorer health outcomes and a lower life expectancy, increased loneliness and social isolation, less access to jobs and education.

Digital Nation UK 2021 Facts, Stats and Fixing the Digital Divide - Manual workers with high or very high digital engagement earn 421 pounds more per month than their less digitally savvy peers.

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UNIX, Linux and Windows 10 all use symlinks or symbolic links - absolute file pathnames are often long, specific and precise point to an exact location more reliable but relative Shortcuts can remind users what applications they had installed. Absolute links are more definitive - can be refereneced from anywhere within a UNIX file system also Debian is an original form of UNIX and Solaris from first Sun Microsystems and now Oracle historically good platform for software development education

A symlink is a symbolic Linux also UNIX link that points to another file or folder on your computer, or a connected file system. This is similar to a Windows shortcut.

Sym links can be symbolic of an application, be relative actually instead of absolute - absolute file pathnames are often long, specific and precise point to an exact location. Absolute links are more definitive - can be refereneced from anywhere within a UNIX file system. Font sizes in pt or point in Microsoft Word are also absolute unit sizes and for fonts absolute sizes more precise not flexible - the em format in CSS or Cascading Style Sheets is flexible and expands as does percentages, increase precentages to near 200 percent for mobile devices really to make text legible and this is also greater social inclusion for visually impaired users.

Symlinks can take two forms - Soft links are similar to shortcuts, and can point to another file or directory in any file system. UNIX is not Linux actually - UNIX is older linked also to big mainframe computers.

Solaris UNIX from Sun Microsystems was a major operating system around certainly in the run up to the new millennium or the year 2000 but existed long before - UNIX really is a very established often considered stable computing platform fewer reboots than Windows.

Linux actually can install updates without reboot - normally Windows 10 needs a reboot, also many users wait ages for Windows 10 to install updates, make configuration changes on shutdown and start-up of a computer. UNIX really dates back to Debian actually and deb also rpm installation files for computer software - deb and rpm are file extensions.

Debian and think University of Berkeley in California - great minds originally eminated from this University, but actually there are many great minds this is obvious when information found online is combined to enable synthesis.

California now actually in the present day 2022 faces many threats now least wildfires and also threats from sinking land and the Pacific Ocean. Off the coast of California actually is the island prison of Alcatraz think Sean Connery and the Rock, which once contained prisoners but is now a tourist attraction off San Francisco.

Solaris now owned by data company Oracle - really data big business, trading it, exploiting it and there is a black market think automated nuisance calls to homes in Scotland where data is used to phone people intimidate them robot spam callers demanding payment sometimes for an Amazon prime subscription - really Amazon does not phone customers, responsible organisation with good reputation. Home owners can be convinces to spend money from robot calls which usually lead to a human operator eventually - robots often used first to dial multiple numbers simultaneously from call centres.

Crimes can stem from data in the digtal age - people can have bad versus good intentions. Everyone faces choices - the choice to cause trouble, upset, grief or walk away, riding away on a bike may be safer actually - safer to avoid confrontation may save someone's life.

Right-click a Windows 10 Desktop in empty space - the Desktop is the screen usually visible to users cluttered with icons for computer applications - then hover over New in the context menu also the right-click additional options menu and then click New Shortcut. These are symbolic links or symlinks in Windows 10. Absolute links and pathnames are always better - less likely to be interrupted or be broken actually. Symlinks are relative in connotation - symlinks or shortcuts do not tend to work again when a computer running Windows 10 is set up again from a DVD or USB flash drive doing a fresh install unless shortcuts are backed-up to OneDrive for example and applications are reinstalled.

Shortcuts saved if people have lots of applications and clutter on the Desktop can really make remembering what software applications or computer programs users had installed enabling faster, more efficient installtion of software applications again minimising downtime in business productivity.

However, keeping computer programs to a minimum on a computer embracing the cloud or online Citrix-like thin computer style applications may actually make a computer more stable in real terms with less interruptions, but video editing can involve heavy lifting and offline applications for conversion for example to Mov or Movie format from Apple to the WebM format low file size high visual quality, a futuristic format that is here now to really increase adoption of video in society. AVS video editor includes the WebM format - adds a watermark actually front and centre when users do not pay, but not paying actually enables those with less money to evaluate applications, play around, write, help others and say what works better and what is not so good. This is the benefit of trials, but actually the free software ecosystem can be powerful and actually free open source software can increase adoption make computing more widespread - sell more mobile and tablet devices also laptops and Desktop PCs. Mobiles really to get help, take photos and shoot videos, although people do seem to walk about looking at screens. Screens on mobiles usually hard to see and the Amazon Kindle has a screen built for the outdoors with long battery life.

Outside video capture screens on Android and iPhone often clear, crisp and vibrant even on the iPhone SE 2020 - the iPhone really made widespread adoption of women connecting with others and with technology.

The iPhone fancy trendy graphics actually made mobile computing friendly, but the closed nature of the source code and also the backend links to iTunes necessitate need for a computer - need for iTunes to sync music for offline playback when a data connection is not available.

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Algorithms versus hand picking - Smart algorithms the rules of logic like Google actually enable more timely results make better decisions, but hand picking information, selecting and re-presenting can really benefit others lead to greater insight - those with special interests can hone in on events but most people have topics that interest them or an area of expertise

Yahoo is the search engine that started off as a search directory with listings curated by humans. Search engines based on smart algorithms the rules of logic like Google actually enable more timely results to help modern working class people make good, better decisions. Still, hand picking information, selecting and re-presenting can really benefit others - hand picking may also help others to make sense of what is happening, the past and events also gain a fresh perspective also insight to help for the future.

Proof reading combined with sequencing and ordering of text and digital content is key to avoid misleading people also promoting greater clarity. Copy and paste function helps with ordering sorting information to enable creators of original works to be more efficient.

Schools in Scotland usually a closed community between teachers, pupils and parents and there is much to learn outside. Learning could be enhanced with greater interaction with the outside world also through exploration and active modes of travel can support learning and education very well coupled with digital technology and sharing.

Sharing also enables reuse but there are issues around fair play also copyright - too much copying may work against creativity and innovation but at the same time sharing widely can teach others more efficiently.

Horizontal and vertical integration across industries really shows how the world is a great mix of professions also talent and expertise - those with special interests can hone in on events but most people have topics that interest them or an area of expertise.

The 1970s really is when manual human operated switchboards took calls from people to place calls help them and around this time all switchboards moved to automation - mobile phone market compeitiveness has brought down the price of smart technology in almost every pocket worldwide really enabling anyone to get help, have their say - online storage solutions also sharing nowadays can enable digital visual evidence to be preserved - this can also enable everyone including more vulnerable persons to be understood when parents are no longer around

File hierarchies or tree like structures combined with copying files can really lead to file duplication and mean more time is needed for human analysis. Also important to consider humans can make mistakes, really humans do need real patience with computer systems. This really makes the case for smart algorithms to bring timely information to people's attention, but actually historical events are still significant.

Important to remember history - the 1970s really is when manual human operated switchboards took calls from people to place calls help them and around this time all switchboards went automatic making workers typically girl calls redundant. Humans also home owners usually do not like speaking, listening or interacting with a machine - speaking to another human can really help a vulnerable person to get meaningful help interpret their circumstances and for appropriate help to be provided - the Department for Work and Pensions advisors may do this providing money also enabling more independence of at risk groups. Sometimes job interviews are involved and this really stems from a culture of encouraging a work ethic.

Important to remember that email providers can actually go bust - Lycos was a company that went out of business but provided email also SMS Simple Mail Service text messages for free from a web-based interface to basic or standard digit 0-9 mobile phones.

Mobile phone networks spotted an oportunity to make money from mobile phone calls - actually commercialisation in this sector has been positive along with compeitiveness - it has brought down the price of smart technology in almost every pocket worldwide really enabling anyone to get help. For those that cannot speak, sometimes there are phone lines that are done using text - this is the importance of such services.

Online storage solutions also sharing with communities nowadays can enable digital visual evidence to be preserved - this can also enable everyone including more vulnerable persons to be understood when parents are no longer around - a video with a parent could provide compelling more authentic evidence since seeing is often believing and technology usually progresses, important always to stay at the forefront of technological developments, get ahead and lead. Changes can be disruptive - disrupt, lives, livelihoods and market. This is market forces at work and these are often the driving force behind large economies.

Actually publishing information maybe better and sharing over online storage helping more people may result in greater progress - actually passwords on computers require need for authentication and may lead to lack of trust or trust issues among members of a household driving fear. Fear can drive paranoia and also may lead to schizophrenia.

Microsoft actually through Windows 10 keeps requiring user log-ins linked to a Microsoft account, so it is fair to say a lot of people likely have an and some people may have a Gmail account. and Gmail are better products more full functional than the basic email service provided by British Telecommunications but BT do provide up to 1TB or 1000GB of free online storage but the upload and download process is cumbersome actually. That said, care for parents can enable money to be saved - BT accounts linked to a household and actually those cared for in peaceful households can save more money. When parents die, children are likely to inherit a property - still OneDrive, Dropbox, Google Drive also Amazon Cloud Drive and BT Cloud enable data to be spread around better preserved perhaps.

Important to remember before broadband and always on connections rolled out, there was slower 56Kbps dial-up connections. Really ISDN Integrated Service Digital Networks was faster around 128Kbps and often used by businesses in the early days of the Internet.

British Telecommunications is really the telecoms giant in the UK who own most landline phonelines - BT took over Plusnet. Plusnet was a technology start-up who was around at the time of BT Cellnet, BT's mobile firm - BT currently own Plusnet. BT Cellnet was taken over by O2 the mobile network.

BT Cellnet basic or standard digit 0-9 phones were thick as a brick.

Important to note being critical can be positive, but also important to be objective since this is rooted in fairness. The actions of some people may be perceived to be unfair, but the same people may also be acting with good intentions with their own belief system - beliefs can be linked with knowledge also events can shape knowledge lead on to progress also, tolerance and better understandings when everyone is respected, cared for and listened to.

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Three main types of data back-up - full backup, incremental backup and differential backup, differential often used by Dropbox and OneDrive to sync changes in files, but incremental back-up can be useful to save storage space

Data back-ups can be useful - there are different means to back-up data and incremental data back-ups can cut down on storage space yet fully comprehensive data back-ups lead onto more redundancy. File optimisation also linked to pattern matching to cut out unnecessary repating data - this is often seen with the JPEG image format where repeating visual information is removed at the pixel level - this also affects pixelation and the quality of visual data.

Incremental back-up can be useful to save storage space sometimes it is not always necessary to keep doing data back-ups where data is the same - actually online media sites with video together with PowerPoint's slide show feature can enable multiple images and documents to be combined in a single container file or object useful for sharing making it easier also for users to see a whole story for example provide greater context.

Three main types of data back-up - full backup, incremental backup and differential backup.

Google useful for technical terms and definitions - also the short descriptive text that appears first and foremost on search pages can be useful giving meaningful information - A differential backup is a data backup that copies all of the files that have changed since the last full backup was performed. This includes any data that has been created, updated or altered in any way and does not copy all of the data every time.

Copying information that has changed is the basis for Dropbox and OneDrive smart syncing also file copying or data back-up sync to an online server, a computer hosted somewhere else and is remote in a different country or part of the world. The Internet is made up of redundant servers in a distributed networks - there is the Microsoft DFS Distributed File System.

A distributed file system (DFS) is a file system with data stored on a server. The data is accessed and processed as if it was stored on the local client machine. The DFS makes it convenient to share information and files among users on a network in a controlled and authorized way.

Google maybe useful, but also websites actually enable human intelligent synthesis of information - enable multiple disparate or independent blocks of information to be brought together and with human analysis to derive greater meaning, websites can really evolve come into their own enhancing the reputation of organisations - sometimes the bottom line, think profits.

Important actually students at University study hard actually, seek to really understand material and concepts - Google actually vast store of technical information to enable further study, follow up also enable students to challenge lecturers - one lecturer is not an authority on everything.

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Windows 10 shortcut key commands and Users who magnify content such as those with visual impairments may take longer to do computing tasks, so employers need to be more patient with disabled employees

Windows 10 ten is really the dominant operating system or computing platform of the moment even though more and more Windows 11 installations are happening - migrating users over to new computing platforms is usually slow, time-consuming and pain staking for IT professionals.

Windows 10 ten actually is a powerful platform and a lot of configuration flexibility can be enabled from the Windows 10 search box - type Settings for example to load the Settings window, the main window from which users can tweak or customise their computer.

Settings is also on the Windows 10 Start menu. Right-click Settings on Start menu, then click Pin to Start, or More Pin to Taskbar for convenient shortcuts to enable quick customisations to your computer.

Right-click anywhere on the Windows 10 Desktop and click Display settings - from this window users can change the resolution of their screen, make icrons bigger for example or smaller and make more icons or content visible on the screen.

More visible content is known as screen real estate - higher resolutions generally boost productivity.

Users who magnify content such as those with visual impairments may take longer to do computing tasks, so employers need to be more patient with disabled employees, but businesses are often driven by profit so most people with real disabilities are out of work - commercial secrets versus open data which is a barrier to real progress. This has care issues actually affects health and social care services. Mental health services are linked because treatment for mental health services can often be linked with social care support.

Windows shortcut commands

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Remembering US President James Abram Garfield - the assasinated President founded Pythagoras the basis for maths and now STEM Science Technology Engineering and Maths is rising in importance

Remembering US President James Abram Garfield founded Pythagoras

1876 James A Garfield published Pythagoras maths Pythagorum theorem - former American President and army major was assassinated.

Pythagorus is the basis for maths and now STEM Science Technology Engineering and Maths is rising in importance.

Pythagorean theorem, the well-known geometric theorem that the sum of the squares on the legs of a right triangle is equal to the square on the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle)—or, in familiar algebraic notation, a2 + b2 = c2.

The hypotenuse is the side of a right-angled triangle that is opposite the right angle.

March 4 1881 became US American President for around six months, died after two months being shot by an assassin.

Pythagoras of Samos was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings influenced Plato, Aristotle and also the West in general.

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Cisco kid Western film star Duncan Renaldo found guilty of perjury, case from the past historical and significant, a cheerful show kept children smiling without nightmares - children and young people increasingly tech savvy

From the Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research on the Cisco kid also copy and paste is best for undisputed facts and for keeping down copying to a small percentage wise using own creative efforts boosts originally and generates new knowledge that informs. Creating new knowledge with analysis and sythesis bring ideas together is the gold standard.

From the Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research - Duncan Renaldo the Cisco kid went to New York and worked his way up from janitor to scene designer, producer and writer at the old Tec Art movie studio. In later years, he told interviewers that he was orphaned at an early age and never knew where he was born, although he believed it was in Spain.

He went to Hollywood in 1926. His first leading role was in Trader Horn, but his life was disrupted just before the movie's premiere in 1931 when he was arrested by immigration authorities for entering the country illegally. After a sensational trial, he was found guilty of perjury for claiming he’d been born in New Jersey. Renaldo, who thought.

He’d been born in Spain, served 18 months in prison. President Franklin D. Roosevelt granted him an unconditional pardon the day before he was to be released. Renaldo later called that epsiode the most interesting and tragic time of my life. By 1940, he was starring in Westerns, and won the lead role in The Cisco Kid movies and TV series in 1944 He and his sidekick, Pancho, played by the late Leo Carrillo, portrayed cowboys who used their wits instead of their guns to bring justice to the Old West. The Cisco Kid was a cheerful show he once said. Pancho and I never killed anyone. The kids that watched our show went to sleep smiling and not with nightmares.

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Meta HTML tag http-equiv refresh tag reloads a whole web page - AJAX loads a web page in part useful for news feeds - this HTML tag is totally different in concept from Amazon Fresh, fresh as in fresh groceries but nothing perishable

The below HTML tag below can be put in the head section of an HTML web page document. It enables a web page to autoload or fresh the whole page.

JavaScript web programming language technique AJAX is actually for dynamically changing components useful for BBC Sport news feeds, tennis scores and so on. Really tennis is actually quite a slow game like cricket also like golf - some older people may prefer slower pastimes to relax and unwind like lawn or garden bowls and really Hampden Park the original site from the 19th century is now a bowling green. This was on BBC programme Scotland from the Sky. The same programme revealed the Kessock Bridge in Inverness was opened in 1978 also Scotland is famous for the sport of curling, lumps of rock or stone for Scottish curling stones come from Aisla Craig or from the pudding stone cliffs off the West coast of Scotland near Ayr.

Before the Kessock Bridge, people located in Inverness had to go by way of Beauly also Muir of Ord to reach Dingwall and further north including Brora, Golspie, Thurso and Wick - golf resort at Golspie also at Fortrose located on the Black aisle - Montrose is near Brechin in Angus east coast of Scotland and also near Arbroath with the Declaration of Arbroath.

"As long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours, that we are fighting, but for freedom - for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself"

"These are the best known words in the Declaration of Arbroath, foremost among Scotland's state papers and the most famous historical record held by National Records of Scotland. The Declaration is a letter written in 1320 by the barons and whole community of the kingdom of Scotland to the pope, asking him to recognise Scotland's independence and acknowledge Robert the Bruce as the country's lawful king.quot;

HTML meta tag for refreshing or reloading a web page but content does not change - it is static but useful for websites with changing content not rolling sports scores such as tennis from BBC Sport. For this there is AJAX. Automatically reloading web pages may cause issues for those focused on a topic, busy reading also honed in on a subject matter getting to grips with a complex technical topic. BBC News using live feeds for news is actually frustrating - it can be nice to read, but changing news too often distracts people from the news really, from reading in detail and in-depth.

<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="30">

Breakdown of HTML code used for display - &lt; for less than character in HTML. &quot; for quotation mark and &gt; for greater than symbol - this is used to display the HTML special markers. When writing HTML code, you should use the special markers themselves as denoted on a standard computer keyboard not &lt; for example. The special characters are also known as escape sequences intended to separate HTML special markers in code from what is displayed in a web browser.

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Apple tech giant has taken over Primephonic classical music streaming making it part of Apple Music subscription service and Apple previously disputed the name with Apple the music label - also help to remotely delete an Android smartphone or Android device, remote wiping useful more for phones and tablets to protect text messages which could link to friends, family and children

While it is possible to remotely delete computers and laptops using various means, actually this is more likely by devious individuals using malware or malicious software also ransomware known as scrambled data can pose a big problem for a company's commercial success this makes actually distributing information wise, publishing, sharing creating multiple verions and formats also porting data to multiple online storage providers or solutions. However, being able to wipe a phone or a tablet from a distance is more disirable since these mobile devices can be easily lost and stolen, contain personal texts which can really identify someone and their connections including friends and family also more importantly their children. Children been kidnapped held to ransom is not impossible. WhatsApp messages can disappear in 5 days automatically - disappearing messages may protect more vulnerable people linked to someone, but taking precautions such as setting a passcode or password on your mobile device may prove useful since mobile devices are portable.

Remotely find, lock or erase an Android phone - - more help available from Google, see

If you love music, transferring playlists in streaming applications across multiple platforms think YouTube Music and Spotify is possible with and actually this may keep your favourite tunes alive at your beck and call to nod off doze also to sleep putting you in a relaxed state - music can improve mood, be euphoric and classical tunes can chill people.

Take a chill pill this was in the Matrix first film the blue pill some might say, but really classical music can be chilling and relaxing - lots of classical tunes are produced by orchestras across the world such as the Scottish symphomy orchestra also the London symphony orchestra - there is also the Prague Philharmoic Orchestra also the Dutch Phion orchestra.

Those living in warmer regions of the world may fall asleep more easily due to the warm climate - Scotland has a temperate climate often milder temperatures but August during the last two years 2020 and 2021 saw thunder and lighting - do not forget the Stonehaven train derailment during August 2020. Those living in Scotland may like music to fall asleep more easily.

Primephonic classical streaming service has been taken over by Apple Music the big tech giant that fought off the Apple music label in a trademark war - see

From at the time of writing 24th July 2022

Dear Primephonic user,

Three years ago, Primephonic was launched to create a better future for classical music by addressing the challenges and complexities of the genre for the streaming era. We felt compelled to develop a streaming service that truly gets classical right—so that’s what we did over the last 3 years. But to fully achieve the next phase of our mission, we need to bring our classical streaming expertise to millions of listeners worldwide.

As a classical-only startup, we can not reach the majority of global classical listeners, especially those that listen to many other music genres as well. We therefore concluded that in order to achieve our mission, we need to partner with a leading streaming service that encompasses all music genres and also shares our love for classical music. Today, we are therefore thrilled to share a great step forward in our mission – Primephonic is joining Apple Music!

The Primephonic service has been taken offline. We are working on an amazing new classical music experience from Apple for next year.

Yours, The Primephonic Team

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E-bikes and e-cargo to be big for delivery of products from Amazon in London also electric transport emerging from big retailer Amazon - big brand companies do usually help employees with families giving them transport so always aspiring to get job fundamental - aspiring key but with global warming more people are perspiring

From Amazon website, Amazon is a pioneer with eco-friendly delivery of groceries and it is happenning in London combining health benefits with clean efficient environmentally friendly transport - really e-bikes and e-cargo actually is more not less job opportunities really helping those housebound with health conditions perhaps also disabilities. Also electric transport is going around in London for Amazon deliveries - individuals having jobs actually and really aspiring will be better looked after because big employers will likely go the extra mile to help staff learn to use electric vehicles also a fulfilling job or vocation will result in employees having electric vehicles for work purposes at home useful for family purposes.

Support for Amazon Fresh can be positive, maybe better than groceries from Tesco also Asda the major supermarkets and Asda is also known as Asda Walmart, a big major American supermarket. Maybe a need to wait longer, but actually this is the importance of planning ahead, respecting eating and drinking in moderation really aspiring ideals - stocking up at the supermarket with large trolleys useful to feed families but actually it encourages perhaps unhealthy purchases also spending on products that people would not normally buy. Children can also put non essential items in trolleys pushing up the cost of living in a crisis.

From - Amazon has also unveiled plans to roll out large scale solar panel installations at facilities based in Manchester, Coalville, Haydock, Bristol and Milton Keynes before the end of this year, to help power those facilities with renewable energy. Amazon will double the number of on-site solar energy projects in the UK by 2024.

Important to turn off digit or passcode authentication on Dropbox also OneDrive on an iPad for example before copying Pages files the native document format on Apple computers and devices to really preserve duplicate data - also Long press is how to bring up a menu to copy paste files on mobile devices but a lightning connected mouse for iPad can enable easy right-click

Let's say you have an iPad - it's good to play around with iPads experiment since they can be a popular, trendy device. The Pages app is a useful note taking app actually with Presenter mode enabling magnification of text in large text useful if you want a kind of auto scroll of large text that you move with your finger may help people tell stories in future.

Pages app files stored in iCloud an online service, but actually it is easy to copy the documents to other places such as Google Drive, OneDrive and Dropbox also Amazon Cloud Drive. There are many digital services - really spreading data around is what preserves data and actually real violent thugs outside who do harm likely have not taken the time to really put data in multiple places. So really this reinforces the view of focusing on real violent life threatening injuries. Digital data when created has potential to be more use really help vulnerable persons - important also for women to become more technically savvy and also a lot happens outside in the natural world also in the natural urban built up world as well as the countryside.

These Dropbox and OneDrive apps actually with passcode authentication enabled with four digits to store files securely actually present real problems for copying data from iCloud such as the Pages app - important to disable passcode authentication actually to be able to copy files or simply you cannot do it and copy files to other competing digital services to help preserve data.

In iCloud Drive on the Pages App, the three dots at the top of the side menu provides options to enable Dropbox and OneDrive.

From the Dropbox app, click Account Tab and next to the word Account tap the cog wheel - options are thus present to turn off passcodes to enable files from the Pages app to be copied to other storage providers online.

To copy container Pages folder in iCloud on iPad, select Select top right, then the Pages icon, then More bottom of screen - click Copy then Pages top left, thus click Dropbox icon to copy files. You need to connect a lightning connected mouse to be able to right-click easily to Paste your files to a more permanent place such as the Dropbox app, so really the iPad is not that portable or mobile device with lacking the ability to paste or duplicate files from iCloud with reference to the Pages app.

To paste files with an iPad, you long press with your finger on empty space then click Paste within the Dropbox app - you might need to try to Long press with your finger a few times - iPad screens can have sensitiivity issues like all touch screens and pixels can fail actually. Screen can get scratched and the glass known as Gorilla glass can get damaged making touch screen and interaction a problem.

Long press is how you paste duplicate files on an iPhone also an iPad - sometimes Copy for make copies of files is available from the Long press menu. Touch input can be convenient on the move, but keyboards also laptops as well can make people more productive also be more reliable in a sense. Touch typing is an important skill to be taught in schools, but equally so is video editing, script writing, video production skills to enable story telling to really empower young people in the digital age.

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Using SQL Structured Query Language to query a database to produce selected output in the form of an abbreviated table output also ability to update or push data into a database table and delete or drop tables

SQL also known as SEQUEL or Structured Query Language and SQL is a query language for a database, it is means to seek information from a database or to query a database.

SQL uses ANSI or American Standard Interface syntax.

The basic SELECT statement of SQL specifies the columns in a database table that are to be displayed in the resulting query data.

FROM specifies the table to be used.

WHERE filters the rows subject to some condition.

SELECT list of attributes
FROM table-name
[WHERE condition];

SELECT driver# - this refers to a table field with an id of driver, this is just an example. Multiple fields can be specified in SELECT statement separated by a comma.

FROM Drivers; - this refers to a table in a database called Drivers.

WHERE address = "Aberdeen"; - this searches an address field in a table for an entry called Aberdeen. Really the basic WHERE clause is used to refine a search - look for specific data or entered data within a field of a table which is contained within a database.

There is also a tuple which is part of a database. Fields, values and tuples exist in a database table.

Tuples are used to store multiple items in a single variable. Tuple is one of 4 built-in data types in Python used to store collections of data, the other 3 are List, Set, and Dictionary, all with different qualities and usage. A tuple is a collection which is ordered and unchangeable.

Pattern matching can be used with the SELECT command. Pattern matching for certain fields with the LIKE clause.

The IN operator with SELECT can check if a field has a specific value from a range or set of values.

COLUMN FUNCTIONS - this can perform calculations on table values - values is the actual data within a field.

A field is really a point in a table that is a cross-section of a column and a row with in a sense co-ordinates to denote the specific field, well rows are usually lettered and columns are numbered. Well fields are located on an axis really and are pinpointed by the definition of a row and a column at a cross-section.

Fields, values and tuples exist in a database table. Values is specific data or entered data and that is what is retrived actually through user queries.

User queries can use OR also AND clauses this is in addition to LIKE often the standard choice or option also operator.

ORDER BY clause sorts output into ascending also descending order.

LIKE clause used with SELECT statement to pattern match - hash or # character to match a digit for example 0-9, star or * matches any number of characters and ? matches a single character.

For example Like "?#*"

SELECT statement, WHERE and ORDERBY clauses to filter data query output

SELECT statement is used with the commands below, for example to count the number of values in a column, use SELECT COUNT(driver#) - driver# is field used in this case, the field of a table.

Let's say there is a field called points, with the WHERE clause part of the SELECT statement assuming the whole statement comprises SELECT, FROM, WHERE, a range can be determined with the AND operator to search a table for fields with a set range of values.

WHERE points >=7 AND points <=15;

ORDER BY name; - this is actually part of the SELECT, FROM, WHERE, ORDER BY statement - ORDER BY followed by field name in this case name can be used to sort a query output alphabetically - some fields can be sorted alphanumerically or by numbers in the case of fields with numbers such as an ID field which may be a primary key. ORDER name DESC used to sort a field with a name in descending order such as Z-A.

Primary key unique identifier for a table

A primary key is like an index for a table in a database - a primary key is a unique identifier for a table really and each row is given a unique identifier usually this is a number for example an ID row. Having a primary key or a unique identifier for every row does enable data values in a table to be sorted also to locate a specific field with inputted data values. Primary keys can be used to link tables together and form relationships such as one to one and one to many relationships.

Linking tables is really useful for the backend of a supermarket - for example there may be a table called ORDERS, CUSTOMERS, DRIVERS and DELIVERIES. Such tables tend to store customer data for orders linking details of groceries to customers as well as deliveries including the drivers responsible.

Maths functions in respect of a database SQL SELECT statement.

COUNT - counts the number of valus in a coloumn

SUM - adds up numbers in a column.

AVG - calculates average column values likely numbers

MAX - calculates maximum column values likely numbers

MIN - calculates minimum column values likely numbers

The below symbols can be used to perform calculations for example adding, subtraction, multiply and divide.

star *, divide /, plus +, minus - symbol

There are four main types of joins in a database and they are shown below - joins enable searching or querying a database and joins are like filters to sift through a dataset and present specific output which is a subset.

SQL join a means to query or filter a table in a database to retrieve results

PRODUCT JOIN - forms every possible combination of rows using 2 sets of columns

INNER JOIN also known EQUI-JOIN - PRODUCT JOIN performed but only those linking attributes that match in user data is retained.

LEFT-OUTER JOIN - involves matching data between two tables like an INNER JOIN, output in second table matched as NULL. Output tends to show full detail for first table on the left.

RIGHT OUTER JOIN - involves matching data between two tables like an INNER JOIN, output in first table matched as NULL. Output tends to show full detail for second table on the right.

In relational databases, a relationship exists between two tables when one of them has a foreign key that references the primary key of the other table. This single fact allows relational databases to split and store data in different tables, yet still link connected or similar corresponding data items together. Foreign keys used in the second linked table but actually a foreign key on a second table is usually the primary key on the second key.

Generally, one to one, one to many and many to many are the three different types of relations in a database.

Updating and deleting data in tables with SQL queries

UPDATE and DELETE queries in SQL can change data in tables - these action queries enable data held in tables in a database to be altered.

An SQL query like below references a Drivers table and for the points field, the number 6 is pushed into the D040 field representing a driver.

UPDATE Drivers
SET points = 6
WHERE driver# = 'D040';

DELETE SQL queries remove whole rows and do not delete data values from cells. Databases use fields but really fields are like cells with data values - really it is spreadsheets that use cells to hold data - Microsoft Access is a database that actually can store names and email addresses to do mail merge with Microsoft Word documents useful for distribution lists using electronic mail messages.

The command below deletes all rows with points field greater than 10 from the Drivers table - points may refer to penalty points, which can help ensure drivers are safe to travel deliver goods.


Some useful SQL commands to create tables, alter tables and delete or drop tables.

CREATE TABLE tablename (columnname data type [coloumn constraint[);

Data types can be char(size such as 8 numeral value) - fixed length string, also varchar2 variable length string, also data type can be number(size,ddds) - real number with integer numeral size and digits dds is decimal places.

Example Tables in a database using SQL you may create for a learning institution.

CREATE TABLE students (student# integer, title varchar2(3), name varchar2(20), address varchar2(40) );

CREATE TABLE courses (course# char(4), course_name varchar2(20), start_date date, end_date, date );

Change data in a table which is contained in a database using SQL.

ALTER TABLE students ADD course char(4);

Delete tables using SQL from a database.

DROP TABLE students;

DROP TABLE courses;

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Colocation server farms provides the building, cooling, power, bandwidth and physical security, while the customer provides servers and storage and video files can act like a container unit for multiple files to enable more efficient user view and access - free video hosting support can be cost effective for ordinary users and free hosting services a good value for money help make computing platform services and digital services available to all where there is a data connection

A colocation facility is a data center facility in which a business can rent space for servers and other computing hardware. Typically, a cololocation facility typically a data warehouse with server farms provides the building, cooling, power, bandwidth and physical security, while the customer provides servers and storage.

Social media websites like YouTube also which are video sharing websites can function like a colocation storage facility for ordinary users - social media firms may pay for storage and the big issue is they provide it free to users usually in an advert supported model. Free video hosting support can be cost effective for ordinary users and free hosting services a good value for money help make computing platform services and digital services available to all where there is a data connection or Internet connection.

Video file formats are container files for multiple documents, images, JPEG also PNG files - such container files enable evidence to be preserved better also presented for playback - video files are great also for slideshow images just to be able to playback images or photographs in a pre-programmed timely interval.

Video container files can order files also images in sequence for logical viewing, but when images haves have been previously logically named with numerical incremental numbers including having a naming convention it becomes easier to more efficiently order images in sequence into a video container file such as MP4 - MP4 MPEG Level 4 works for playback independent of computing platform or on Windows, Mac and Linux also Apple and Android.

Video container files also enable outsourcing of video storage cut down on storage on web servers - actually putting multiple files in a single container file, uploading to a video sharing site makes it easier to back-up preserve websites also it makes it easier for web hosting companies to mirror content when less files are on a web server.

Lots of files on a server or computer takes its toll on indexing for search features and also files are stored on a hard drive in a scatterbrain approach - disk optimisation or defragmentation also defrag was born to move file fragments to make files open faster so that file fragments are ordered sequentially in blocks. Sequential order of file fragments in blocks makes it faster for a computing to piece together the multiple blocks that make up a file to really open or read a file to enable user view.

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Copying text a paragraph at a time to Notepad for example to create a web page is likely more efficient and more reliable in the long-term - it is easier to wrap a line of HTML code from a PDF paragraph block in letter-p or pee or p tags the HTML element for producing paragraphs of text which create single line spacing between each paragraph - also rules of logic written by computer programs can predict behaviour and detect potential shocks to systems in advance useful for climate modelling and making predictions

Newbies or newcomers to writing HTML and web page code - hold down Control plus letter es or letter-s routinely to save files quickly in Notepad the Windows 10 basic text editor light on system resources, actually TXT files enable efficient ways to save online text to your computer - key shortcuts can save work offline on your computer, to Dropbox and OneDrive container folders on a computer the gold standard to prevent damage to a computer's hard drive, but really a Solid State Hard Drive as a second drive in a computer can also provide a fail safe means to save because actually the most common errors with a computer are with the Windows core operating system caused by Microsoft.

Online storage keeps files available from anywhere and at anytime - also some countries are also more stable than others with more stable weather patterns, but no-one can predict where in the world and when the next disaster will strike, but for events where humans are involved that are man-made to some extent advanced smart algorithms rules of logic written by computer programs can predict behaviour and detect potential shocks to systems perhaps better than even those responsible for computer systems who oversee day to day running - everyone can get distracted, lose focus but Microsoft Windows 10 annoyingly has Interrupt requests and memory leakages these are the hexadecimal code error messages that stop a computer from shutting down, perhaps rebooting - young people learning the base 16 hexadecimal system also learning their sixteen times table might allow greater understanding of Windows error messages when they enter search strings into Google the mightly all knowing search engine with lots of definitive answers for technical terms along with erroneous bad information in the mix. Really technical vocational qualifications and studying at polytechnic Universities also technical Colleges may help you to determine bad information from good useful information.

All computer systems do require monitoring, human input, management. Right now 23 July 2022 hot temperatures predicted for China - 40C actually that is not that hot, recall the south France during 2006 and temperatures were around 40C and actually a breeze wind chill can take the edge of exceedingly hot temperatures. Often breezy in the North-East of Scotland and just look to winter 2021-2022 several storms of strong winds across the region battering the region with billowing gales. This is freak weather - been predicted to come for decades by scientists using climate modelling software and number crunching to get ahead really fast supercomputers to churn through data at breakneck speed look for patterns, now it is happening due to carbon intensive processes such as oil use, gas extraction and the coal heated homes of the past in Scotland - coal powered most homes during the 20th century.

22nd July 2022 BBC NEWS China heatwave: Temperatures of 40C expected this weekend -

Web page code just using a normal dash pressing the dash key once on the keyboard in Notepad usually displays a dash on screen definitely and usually no on screen special formatting errors which is very convenient but there is the &mdash; to produce — a bigger line useful to break apart information and provide more clarity. This can really help media professionals when crafting informative meaningful headings.

There is also &ndash; or – this is how to write a dash in HTML web page code and actually the and symbol is done in HTML web page code or web page language from usually the number 7 seven key on the keyboard which shares the and key when shift is held down. Hold down shift press letter-7 to produce & denoted in HTML web page code as &amp; - the word amp short for ampersand and resembles the word and - this is one of the most useful ASCII special character symbols also known as escape charceter sequences in HTML web page code.

Many working professionals will likely have many files saved in PDF Portable Document Format files - actually copying text a paragraph at a time to Notepad for example to create a web page is likely more efficient and more reliable in the long-term - it is easier to wrap a line of HTML code from a PDF paragraph block in letter-p or pee or p tags the HTML element for producing paragraphs of text which create single line spacing between each paragraph - a new paragraph is often used to signify new ideas also new concepts or new topics or items for discussion in news articles for example.

Those that work in law enforcement actually are mostly people who go into a job role to protect the public the ethos of Police Scotland is to protect the public - actually it is important to train everyone in computer technologies, but it is imperative the police seek to learn quickly ahead of the public to really enforce online laws linked to exploitation of children also online laws linked to harassment of women.

Being able to shoot video from a smartphone and do it efficiently also back it up make copies and duplicates is really fundamental to creating evidence that is truly without prejudice. Making duplicates and organising also sequencing including story telling is part of parcel of presenting real life cases whether of an interesting life lived or bring someone to justice for a crime that has been committed.

Becoming digital empowered through greater knowledge acquisition and real world practice or hands on skills training is key to becoming more tech or technical savvy.

Digital skills education really benefits everyone but some vulnerable groups have the most to gain such as women and disabled people including also older people who first went online as pensioners to keep in contact with their grand kids or grand children.

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Frequency-hopping spread spectrum automatically changes carrier frequency of radio waves also signals

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly changing the carrier frequency among many distinct frequencies occupying a large spectral band. The changes are controlled by a code known to both transmitter and receiver.

So radios use different frequences - so with frequencies being changed actually automatically likely transparent in the background, ordinary police likely do not notice. A criminal nowadays would really have to hone their skills, fine tune them harness their abilities to really pick out conversations over radio communication also switching frequency.

There are two types of spread spectrum techniques: the frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technique and the direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique.

Slow frequency hopping is a type of frequency hopping primarily used for avoiding multiple access interferences in wireless communication systems. The slow frequency hopping spread spectrum technique is a popular technique used in wireless local area networks and wireless personal area network communication.

In slow frequency hopping, multiple symbols are transmitted in one frequency hop. In fast frequency hopping, multiple hops are required to transmit one symbol. One or more symbols are transmitted over the same carrier frequency.

Spread spectrum is a form of wireless communications in which the frequency of the transmitted signal is deliberately varied. This results in a much greater bandwidth than the signal would have if its frequency were not varied.

More channels, more choice and actually to transmit all channel information over the air takes bandwidth - broadcasting is really done over the air through the air using wireless signals. This is TV broadcasting from both terrestrial TV and from satellite.

Satellite even in TV broadcasting is about the relay of signals in binary a two state system over a physical carrier medium. Satellite TV is about entertaining real people but also it is about educating people - some programmes really are not worth watching for example Naked Attraction. Never actually watched it - Mum revealed what she took it watching it with one of her sisters, mentioning no names multiple sisters masks identities. Naked Attraction is aimed at women - enables them to choose a partner for dating based on their penis. Really, if you want to watch it, you will find it in the TV schedules on Freeview terrestrial broadcasting - Sky TV boxes also Virgin Tivo boxes are made using Java an object oriented programming language. Freeview really is Universal in the UK, but some people actually may have signal issues, have to retune - sometimes from time to time rescanning or retuning picks up new channels.

So Sky TV offers more channels, more choice, entertainment and education for when people stay at home. Still it can be good to get outside and travel - no-one is infalliable and actually anyone may get hurt especially on the roads around Aberdeen.

Actually the most interesting developments are outside, but traditional newspapers really just reveal written up works still useful - ability to really have a mobile device with ability to read information and shoot video side by side might result in betting more engaging content also more accurate content based on what is happening in real time.

Digital technology education is really about enabling and empowering people, take part produce more engaging content based on local developments.

Most people would likely be willing to pay for such content - more visual material with narratives based on what is happening in real-time throughout an urban landscape - actually cycling on country roads is really where the danger is and the Scottish government have no plans to reduce speed limits national speed limits like 60Mph on country roads.

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For YouTube video uploads for longer videos, mobile phone numbers need to be confirmed - Facebook's free model of support for unlimited photo and video upload actually places a great burden on computer servers is really unsustainable long term, but Facebook now known as Meta like the HTML meta tag has always said the service will be free to users which is a big issue - Facebook disruptive technology

For YouTube video uploads for longer videos, mobile phone numbers need to be confirmed - actually for Facebook video upload, users can upload really quite large files without a mobile phone for example, this does make the web as a platform universal in a sense actually truly universal and independent of computer platforms enabling also free speech and individuals also to have their say - equal representation is born from this.

Facebook is supported by adverts to fund the service free for users, an online service that supports connections, friendships and relationships - Facebook's use of video also Facebook pages and business pages actually makes Facebook very dominant as a powerful company.

Facebook has computer servers and with that there is actually a heavy burden on Facebook to continue to provide unlimited photo and video storage - really always investing and innovating in novel data compression formats is wise. The WebM format for video makes good use of visual quality while at the same time keeping down file size.

Different people actually see different online videos - no-one really sees a whole conversation from a person's life actually - this might be a person's life story. Story telling is also worthwhile - those that have lived a significant existance reflecting and telling stories about what they have learnt may inform others.

As far as video is concerned, video compression is important and also the algorithms underpinning them - actually shorter videos being shared actually can enable a scene in real life to be captured and shared most efficiently - big role actually for adding text content to supplement videos with reference to background data on the web - look-up of information on the web for fact checking could enable more accurate use of video for visual verification paired with text content. Still a big role for text and honesty, but visual representations make observations more authentic.

Actually big role for summarising - producing key points in video when cross-evidenced with other evidence this could make a very compelling case for use in court using a video with audio and subtitles, but actually most people that attend Aberdeen Sheriff Court for example do not see a Jury - they face a judge in practical reality, plead guilty actually since there can be 100 or a hundred people facing court on any given day according to the court role page. Cases that progress to court actually, people may feel pressurised to plead guilty when confronted with an incident to avoid harm to reputations - really a focus more on digital evidence rather than witnesses with conflicting statements and contradictions really corroborates a tale and accusations may provide more certainty and be more definitive at the end of the day.

For YouTube video uploads for longer videos, mobile phone numbers need to be confirmed - Facebook's free model of support for unlimited photo and video upload actually places a great burden on computer servers is really unsustainable long term, but Facebook now known as Meta has always said the service will be free to users which is a big issue a real problem.

Really important to keep back-ups of photos and videos on Facebook as well as conservations also posts you may have made which are worth keeping. Facebook does allow users to download their data. Actually downloading data from Facebook may not be in the same high quality format as when you uploaded data - this is compression in the backend to reduce file sizes.

Compressing file sizes doing video editing before upload of videos can cut video upload time for slower networks. Aberdeen actually and the surrounding area is an area with relatively fast broadband speeds. Some areas of Scotland such as rural area may have slower patchy connections to the Internet - this is what makes video compression technologies come into their own. The web is really built for education on technical topics - a technical vocational education is more grounded in practical reality with less grey areas of dispute.

Facebook actually is a great platform for education really opening the eyes of others, showing what is going on and teaching. With video sharing, the person uploading videos really has discretion about what videos to share - using a camera outside without upload of video may force behaviour change by others make them think twice about behaviour which is less than considerate on someone more vulnerable. Actually someone may feel alarmed enough to voice concerns - really multiple people voicing concerns and the same concern is how progress is made and change happens. This can be seen from the UK government petitions website - see

There are many online services that make it easy for users to voice concerns, but really skills in website design and development can give editorial control to someone coupled with first rate written communication skills, prose can be crafted to argue and persuade others.

Teaching and educating others to create websites may lead onto great progress, advance knowledge and spread it around - digital course materials on the web enable reuse of learning material and sharing of information with broad appeal enabling the most vulnerable learners to digest what they learn and learn in their own pace at their own time at their own way and at their own convenience.

Facebook or Meta is a professional company with an ad supported business and backend based on sophisticated technology so it would likely give users the option to start paying a subscription to use the service - keep data and friends before deletion of data happens.

Google Play Music was a service that enabled users to upload unlimited music or MP3 tracks to stream or play online - this service is now known as YouTube Music and actually users were faced with the option to have their music collections deleted or migrate to YouTube Music. YouTube Music still enables users to upload MP3s and listen for free to their own music.

An advert supported model is for music playback for free, but music streamed through adverts does not work with the screen off for music users have not paid for. If users upload their own music collections, users can listed to music for free with their mobile screen off. Really users need either a laptop or a desktop computer to upload their own music to YouTube Music - this is what makes buying a computer a worthwhile investment amongst the many great things you can do with your own computer such as install a version of Linux such as Ubuntu from South Africa instead of Microsoft Windows 10 or 11.

Linux comes in many formats also flavours, Linux Mint is also very user-friendly but there is OpenSuse and Fedora - really these ones are the main ones that are popular. Fedora is often popular with computing departments at Universities, but it is traditionally not been the most user-friendly. Fedora does enable users to tinker though and experiment - important though to write about and document lessons learned.

Facebook is really disruptive technology but at the same time it is a platform that attracts interest and users, connects half of everyone on the Internet. Facebook may actually be underpinned by smart algorithms - really though if you want to get someone's attention, posting on their Timeline or sending them a direct message is best to get their attention, start a conversation.

Most people like news - Facebook uses feeds also filters with web filtering going on and usually users see posts from someone more when multiple friends click Like or someone comments on a post. Facebook Groups better for communities and also for special interest groups to target discussions also to buy and sell items in a community.

Really approval, disapproval of posts also comments is what drives traffic to posts on Facebook. Disapproval and angry comments are nagative social chitchat and banter also this may have a negative effect on someone's mental and emotional health.

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Wiping hard drives sometimes necessary this makes data transfer very positive - also laptops with minimal data present less of a security risk overall so this makes the cloud and online storage advantageous for those with worries and anxieties and small size web pages enable universal education and also efficient downloading over slower networks such as those in the third world with General Packet radio services also UMTS Universal Telecommunications Service

Windows 10 Start menu, then Windows system folder, click File Explorer to open Windows Explorer. From the left panel, click This PC.

This pane, window or view reveals disk drives connected to a computer - great benefit if you have a second SSD hard drive. Files can become corrupted, get stuck, refuse to delete.

Deleting files can be useful within a file system where a user choses to delete selected files in order to give a clearer view.

When users present information for publication on the web, the benefit of HTML native web pages is they are typically low in file size - this saves space, also bandwidth with users downloading - this also enables education very well and web pages enable univeral education across the world.

Small size web pages enable efficient downloading over slower networks such as those in the third world with General Packet radio services also UMTS Universal Telecommunications Service.

From the File Explorer view multiple disk drives, data transfer and copyfiles between drives for example from an SSD hard drive to a main hard drive can enable preservation of files. For example, copy files you want to keep to a main hard drive, then on a second SSD hard drive for example, right-click on the drive and click Format to bring up the window with options for wiping a hard drive. Formatting a hard drive can clear issues caused by stuck or corrupted files that will not delete maybe even clear viruses.

Laptops are portable devices, they can be password protected but when passwords are applied sometimes the mechanism used to secure passwords can be corrupted and users cannot log-in to their machine. This is where password recovery methods are very useful - this can often be done from a Windows 10 Set Up DVD.

Passwords usually based on a hash code - actually passwords in Windows 10 is not the same thing as BitLocker or the Encrypting File System the system for a Windows 10 PC or computer to really encrypt data make others really go all out to decrypt and recover data intercept what someone is doing.

Computers can be used by people with good and bad intentions. Laptops are portable can be easily stolen but actually with Windows 10 they do enable creation of websites to share information. Web servers often involve RAID5 storage with redundant hard drives and mirroring so really publish on the web is the best way to keep data. Still great memories can be kept local with a USB external hard drive and nowadays 2TB SSD drives are cost effictive and affordable. A local external hard drive can isolate fond memories linked to a child off a computer away from viruses and malware - always keep an external hard drive unplugged and just connect to a computer to do data transfer, scanning for viruses more often like once a week will likely reduce the risk of getting an external hard drive corrupted when you connect it to a computer.

Sometimes necessary to format a hard drive, perform a clean Windows 10 install also rebooting is common in Windows 10 more common than Linux systems which are considered more stable. Linux systems have a kernel as a core part of an operating system. Windows 10 has a system known as the registry - really this is very complicated but it defines in complex data terminology all the elements that make up Windows 10 - regedit in search box launches Registry. Registry editing is not for novices since you can really damage or corrupt a Windows 10 system - sometimes registry editing is necessary to remove a virus or piece of malware causing performance and system stability issues to a computer.

In a nutshell, data transfer between drives in a computer and to external USB hard drives can enable hard disk drives to be wiped - laptops with minimal data present less of a security risk overall so this makes the cloud and online storage advantageous for those with worries and anxieties over what data they are keeping.

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The Department of Work and Pensions use privacy guidelines known as GDPR to really protect personal information of benefit claimants also those in receipt of pensions - Annoymising data is also known as obfuscation also data masking - data mining tries to make sense of annonoymised data, such as encrypted or obscured information

Do you have privacy concerns? A lot of people do, so you are not alone, but their are privacy browsers and their is the privacy search engine Duck Duck Go.

The Department of Work and Pensions use privacy guidelines known as GDPR. Staff working for the department may mention GDPR really it is data protection guidelines. Staff may mention GDPR over the phone but may not explain. Companies actually may be concerned when employees disclose their salaries - their are compeition issues with this to think about for businesses. However, individual employees may like to progress their careers but still keeping bank account information private can protect real people and banking customers from online fraud in a digital age.

Annoymising data is also known as obfuscation also data masking - data mining tries to make sense of annonoymised data, such as encrypted or obscured information. The School of Computing at Aberdeen's RGU or Robert Gordon University do deal in depth with data mining in courses currently being offered by the University at present. Universities tend to offer courses in line with potential applications in industries to help students obtain graduate jobs.

Annonymising data involves removal of personal identifiers - an individual may be directly identified from their name, address, postcode, telephone number, photograph or image, or some other unique personal characteristic. It is one thing to protect data, but actually some people do job roles in the public eye and free available tools online such as BT Directory Enquiries can determine where about people live, so going ex-directory for home phones may have an advantage cut spam calls but more and more young people just have a mobile smartphone has their primary contact device - useful for mobile convenient calling, but mobiles can be lost also stolen. Get into trouble with law enforcement, the police may deal with you in harsher terms if you say no fixed abode, are unemployed not in education or training this give rise to the term NEET with reference to Scottish teens young adults.

Protection Regulation (GDPR) - anonymous data is information which does not relate to. an identified or identifiable natural person or to personal data rendered anonymous in such a manner that the data subject is not or no longer identifiable.

Annonymising data is a big benefit because it can lead to stats also public statistics or open data to show trends also better plan health and care services. Businesses can benefit from open data and annonymised data with data analysis by complex algorithms and human readable reports with human interpretation can help to foster greater progress, learn lessons from stored data and lead onto the development of better services to benefit real world customers also sometimes called clients depending on the nature of the business.

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Compact Discs introduced random access to data and music tracks using Infrared to choose or pick music and lasers to read, an improvement on serial or sequential access - serial access to tape storage using Camcorders during 1990s was a big issue meant quite slow adoption of video by the average consumer or user

SCSI Small Computer Simple Interface and IDE drives a technical definition.

SCSI enables personal computers to talk to physical devices such as disk drives also the old fashioned tape drives which usually enabled access to data in a serial or sequential manner - story telling can often be done in a series with a set order but actually the process of story telling may involve sequencing and putting an order to a set of events.

Multiple smaller capacity disks used together in a RAID5 redundant multiple hard drive system may be better in terms of cost effectiveness also reliability to preserving data over a single large capacity hard drive. Server farms with racks of hard drives bundled together to duplicate user data likely use multiple high capacity hard drives to really protect user data - data mirroring to back-up data is not the same thing as data integrity. Data integrity can involve real errors in data sent across a computer network - this is what leads to a Cyclic Redundancy Check or CRC useful for files like operating system ISO files to be downloaded from the Internet, checked for integrity so absolutely no errors are present to enable a successful installation or a fresh install of Windows 10 or Windows 11.

The ever popular CD-ROM disc still used but streaming of music and Spotify is popular

CDs also compact disc used traditional for music WAV files involve lasers to read music tracks and also music tracks enable random access to data - this was an improvement over sequential access used with casette tapes also video casette tapes - having to watch videos on video casette tapes for playing with serial or sequential access really discouraged the use of video recording from Camcorders in the 1990s for capturing visual image data and video recording of events - also only 16 million people on the Internet during 1996 there was definitely no social networks, no Facebook which has evolved over time and network speeds and data rates have got faster really enabling multimedia transmission over computer networks this is convergence in a sense started or pioneered by Cisco Systems, Inc as a concept described as the future - CEOs of technology firms really need to be futuristic with a vision, educators too must be ahead of their time partner with industry commercial firms this is what makes innovation at University level so important and with this creativity at every level is important fundamental even from students also lecturers.

A CD contains a long string of pits written spirally on the disk. The edges of the pits correspond to binary ones and binary ones and zeros used in computer networks for data transmission on a carrier known as a physical media such as fibre optic cable. Zeros and ones also known as binary digits is the basic storage unit for data in a computer system, but hexadecimal digits are often used in computing this is the base 16 system instead of two state base 2 system of binary. Two state system is also boolean logic and true false representation or states. Boolean refers also to electrical signals in electrical engineering and refers to the manufacturing or soldering of circuitboards.

Nowadays embedded computing is here minitiature circuits in the palm of your hand with radio frequency interference also defices that have this issue have RFID like bank cards this is an ID - frequencies can be fine tuned also honed to a certain extent. Audio can be enhanced for use in hearing aids with reference to induction loops.

RFID is not the same thing as a digital identity or a digital certificate - digital certificates can be used to authenticate real people to ensure genuine trust in a communication.

Digital certificates been possible for over 20 years now and Verisign was a company that really pioneered it but digital certificates can be difficult to understand how to use, linked in concept actually to public key cryptography and encryption. Digital certificates may prove useful in the future with more understanding and explaining with due regards how to use and implement them.

Encrypting communications can mask crimes, but being open with others, whether with a group of close confidents or more generally, may increase trust with other people. Lives and issues can be complex - the police investigate matters in the here and now useful for stopping threat to life incidents, but really a lot of information exchanges happen over time - real conversations can happen with greater meaning. More thorough investigations including video being analysed could shed more light on the thinking of someone accused of a crime - also help thwart crime helping stop a potential offender before actions really do spiral or escalate.

Encryption can lead to subterfuge, hidden agendas but always making your prejudices also your biases including sources that inform your beliefs known can help with public trust overall.

Compact discs from the traditional music world - Opti Drive Speed is a small tool to change the read speed of a CD, DVD or BD drive. This will help reading damaged discs and provide higher quality audio rips.

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The Internet is biggest threat to copyright since its inception, but merit is always given for original works - also messages sent by way of the Internet and TCP/IP have flags often priority flags, quality of service - messages can be assigned priorities based on key words or search terms such as threat to kill also children at risk messages may also be prioritised

Learning materials are usually created by well paid academics also lecturers, not so much teachers in schools to an extent since there are lots of websites with teaching resources. Academics at Universities usually reward students for innovation and creativity - so really instilling in children creativity is important. Creative works may be lost when not retained and the digital world makes copies and ability to duplicate real easy. Lost creative works setback learning progress may lead to greater anger and resentment, so this is the importance of saving - the World Wide Web is universal and enables sharing.

Events happen in the media often get recorded by journalists - actually making sense of events, providing analysis and interpretation, synthesising bringing events together, assimilating themes is higher cognitive skills and this is a very desirable quality can lead to great progress in society and maybe even technological progress.

The information below is from lecture slides titled Legal and Copyright - Overview written by a lecturer at Aberdeen RGU's School of Computing no name actually mentioned within the slides as to the original creator and there are 37 slides. If people want acknowledgement they need to use names.

The below highlights what is copyright well the bullet points to be clear the bulleted list items to avoid ambiguity be clear as to what has been copied - important to copy it all actually to provide meaning and significance. Preceding text provides analysis also explains, provides also context, which puts meaningless random text strings into context actually - data is meaningless without analysis and analysing is to disseminate using communication methods, formatting, presentation and also styles of presentations.

Copying is infringed upon within the Academic community, but individuals may do it anyone thinking no-one is looking, but all computers have an IP address, a source address in a computer network - messages sent get sent to a destination IP address, really packet tracing is possible - there is also packet sniffing and there are a great many free open source applications from where computer programmers may publish bespoke novel applications with the view to establish themselves within the wider field of computing and also in software development - it is ordinary computer programmers that write the algorithms the rules of logic that underpin well sophisticated smart electronics even signal control traffic light boxes - really the future is closed loop control for traffic signals since it supports motion and also positive feedback, open loop control is linked to traffic signal timings and really the traffic lights at the Aberdeen bypass roundabout near Kingswells on route to Westhill are based on open loop control traffic signal timings that have been preset - these were ereted during 2019 in response to around 150 traffic collisions before traffic signals were ereceted - it is not clear whether this is the fault of the Aberdeen City roads department or the IT services department.

Always important to distinguish in the copyright world between what is copyright and what is genuinely in the public interest - publishing alerting multiple people making people aware may save more lives, and the lives of more vulnerable persons, since alarming actions can be detected - really this is the benefit of shared video. Video really is digital evidence and police usually like evidence but in Scotland police like to source evidence themselves - the police have priorities and some cases are flagged a greater priority than others such as threat to life incidences.

Digital report of crime via the online form on the website of Police Scotland can cut down on time and effort also retyping by call handlers - also messages sent by way of the Internet and TCP/IP have flags often priority flags, quality of service - messages can be assigned priorities based on key words or search terms such as threat to kill. Message flags in the protocol or the rules that govern Internet communications is exactly what makes a message go through in a sense for real action - also children at risk messages may also be prioritised. Having a background in technology gives someone confidence to predict how technology systems work, but actually it may not totally work in this manner - there is often also a human element and human discretion and police can face conflicting messages coming in over the radio and police radio often crackes with interference but is two-way real-time communication.

Radio communications hark back to saying Roger for clarity and there is a term echo also in Linux and MS-DOS to capture input actually put stored data in file, this may have great potential when universal multi platform TXT messages are used - messages can sometimes be truncated or shortened sometimes for efficiency sometimes due to corrupted data malformed data packets often called runts less than 64Kbps.

Those vulnerable persons may have limitations - also older people usually develop health related issues, really life is a gift and actually police responding to threat to life incidents is wise but when officers arrive, really trying to understand the viewpoints of an offender, listening and being patient, sourcing video evidence is really much better for long term peaceful outcomes and big role for restorative justice where offenders and victims meet - role play and plays with scripts could really be useful to understand why a crime happened or took place known also as a reconstruction acted out with witnesses from living memory.

Copyrighted material as defined by RGU School of Computing lecturer from the past - if you want credit for originality, always better to be upfront about what material has been referenced and also provide links to corroborate copied material in a hypermedia age

Copyrighted works on the Net include:

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Google Docs has version control - saved documents in real time automatically saved when there is a data connection and work in progress - Graphical Icons need to be self-explanatory for broad widespread adoption so listening to influential voices in user interface design is important also Windows Start button always been convenient help tool and Home button on iPhone disappearing - also Martha Lane Fox female tech entrepreneur behind and sophisticated real-time technologies with clock syncrhonisation really underpin air travel for safety critical reasons

Google Docs has version control - saved documents in real time automatically saved when there is a data connection and work in progress.

Version control symbolic of the iterative nature of computer software development going back to the design stage to make modifications to move on change code - changing code always requires testing and debug.

Google Docs saving versions assists accountability for saved documents and tracking of changes who did what? Shared documents with contributors attached using real names not abbreviated names shielded for privacy could result in pay increases among employees of established businesses also public sector employees in Scotland. Online names can sometimes be short but humans identifying themselves can lead to more respect in wider communities perhaps but then there is jealousy to consider. Open data could lead to more accurate story telling - there may be many people who have stories with great coincidences that have happened with reference to events.

Events can shape someone’s character and actually there are many chance events that happen in life that may be linked or people may perceive links when details are scrutinised.

Some links may be symbolic and flow from the connotation of mind with meanings significant to merit teaching others to really help make progress advancements with concepts maybe even technology, flowing on in a manner that has hallmarks in lifelong learning the bedrock of Curriculum for Excellence - main policy or key theme of Scotland’s flagship learning programme is to create lifelong learners who are environmentally responsible.

Version control also known as computer software release numbers going up in an incremental manner - Windows actually used to focus on years think Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows 2000 - the big issue with a focus on years is that end users or business customers want a release every year so this results in change of tact for Microsoft, the established player in the computer sector.

Windows Changed with Windows XP the computing platform brought more stability, the platform was around for about 10 years many users felt confident in a consistent user experience - Windows Start menu always been consistent and that brings user confidence and empowerment like the Home button on iPhone not present on latest models but popular features can make a comeback - Windows start menu in software went away in Windows 8 only to return in Windows 10.

It is harder for device manufacturers to change hardware after new devices are soldered and created - being critical of design features for mobile computing can lead onto digital empowerment for more people. Women actually are drawn to an iPhone’s ease of use the simple icons that are colourful, trendy and self-explanatory.

Icons need to be self-explanatory for broad widespread adoption so listening to influential voices in user interface design is important like Jakob Nielsen use also there is University of Maryland technology guru Ben Sneiderman.

Icons that are graphical only may be confusing lead to confusion but Windows desktop shortcuts also have a text accompaniment which aids text to speech voice playback making computing technologies more accessible.

The mobile screen is small but actually text like the HTML link attribute the tooltip from web accessibility Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 can enable text in a pop up for graphical icons on a smartphone to help non technical users.

Broad appeal for a smartphone manufacturer can assist bigger profits also more sales.

Upload a new document or file to Google Docs from your computer, a second version of the same file gets stored or uploaded and marked as version two of a file this is clearly shown in the Google Drive interface - Google Drive is like a file manager that brings together multiple files created also uploaded into a single window or management interface.

Google Drive user interface a smart, sleek efficient user interface that enables file compatibility very well and it also represents convergence with Google Drive acting as a central point of management to files of varying types also folders in an efficient manner but Google Drive really data dependent - need for WiFi wireless connectivity also mobile data on the move this is a resilient network access approach enabling access to the universal network the Internet that uses TCP/IP as the set of rules to govern or control Internet communications.

TCP with a SYN bit for synchronisation useful to ensure well timed data communication also TCP has a quality of service flag really digital communications more reliable and consistent than human with an ACK packet to say thanks message received. Still data packets the single unit of currency in a digital system that underpins actually Bitcoin a volatile currency for paying for digital goods and services can go astray also malformed data packets can result - data packets of less than 64Kb or kilobytes are considered malformed data packets this leads to error checking also Cyclic Redundancy Checks and need to check integrity of files downloaded from the Internet using the md5 hash sum or signature which is complex mathematics - hash signatures really underpin digital signatures to authenticate human to humaninteraction.

Really lessons from the digital world and digital technology has many benefits to make more reliable human to human interaction where people really consider the needs of others and are nicer.

Greater digital skills education becoming more widespread can actually lead on to a nicer, safer society where more vulnerable persons are considered and have their needs truly considered.

Really this all stems from having good ethics and morals and actually very young children do need to consider the wellbeing of other more vulnerable persons from early on and always consider multiple perspectives.

Academics at Universities award the top marks for really considering the needs of others this actually has roots in universal usability - really many African nations are underdeveloped with lack of even basic technology systems.

Some people are always more fortunate than others - everyone needs a safe place to sleep, also everyone needs care when they are older.

Older people need help to embrace the digital world - this is what gave rise actually to woman in technology Martha Lane Fox with the view to promoting greater social inclusion.

Martha Lane Fox started - air travel flights booked at the last minute leading onto charity Antigone. Booking flights at the last minute relies on advanced hi-tech computer support systems at the backend - online booking is flexible when there is data integrity and information exchange in real time is reliable.

Airport systems really do use advanced systems for real-time communications and such topics were often taught in Computing during the mid to late 1990s in Scotland.

Real-time systems were really the focus of computing systems 20 years ago and that led onto a surge of real-time applications springing up written by computer programmers, real-time systems need to be based on synchronisation and accurate clock signals relaying between computer systems for proper operating function - lack of synchronisation can lead onto errors in the data world - really collaboration between people, tolerance and respect for each other is at the heart of a civil society and also a future sustainable world with less conflict and peace as well as harmony at the centre.

Peace and harmony boils down to technology skills education - really most primary school teachers in Scotland do not have the knowledge and skills to impart the essential skills onto the children to really help everyone also everyone grows older, need care and carers against the backdrop of competitive industries demanding salaries.

Paying everyone a fair rate is fundamental to social and technological progress, but actually when vulnerable persons are really cared for, they can survive on very little money.

Care and respect is at the centre of a safer society but so to is seeing potential in people really helping the most vulnerable to make a meaningful, significant contribution - giving back is also about teaching others.

Memories actually really transient and temporary and putting them into digital form and sharing with others really teaches what has gone before.

Big future role for young psychiatrists to evoke memories - some memories can be traumatic, evoke strong feelings running back to childhood - themes often run through a dataset, and analysing themes also recurring themes can spot trouble before it happens.

Legal minds need to be aware of themes troubling themes and that involves communication and vulnerable persons sometimes being willing to share data.

Really bringing prosecutions after analysing recurring themes in a dataset is really the future and data whether writings, photos also photographs and lifelike video provide more permanent forms of media than transient memories.

Prosecutions are really important for public respect and integrity the judicial system also the legal system but courts need to be capable of supporting everyone in an inclusive society.

Video with subtitles really important actually to help deaf or hard hearing juror members listen, watch and digest digital evidence also this is convergence in media in real terms - it is fair to say not everyone is deaf or blind, so there is always a need for a human element and discretion to be exercised in a professional capacity.

Suspension of judgement is also an important principle in a fair legal system that considers evidence without prejudice - this is really borne out with video.

Honesty has always been central to integrity, truth and justice in the Scottish legal system resulting in shorter sentences also community payback schemes including ASBOs anti social behaviour orders can promote better behavour encourage offenders to get back on track, make a positive fulfilling life for themselves.

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Facebook, the digital world and frustrations really stem from data loss - Facebook social platform where users can request deletion of content and actually some users may delete to keep others happy, keep friends

Sometimes upload a video to Facebook, type a description, click somewhere else by accident and your typed description gets lost - important actually to copy and paste actually routinely transient or temporary data to TXT files - well these work very well a universal data format supported by both Android, Windows and Linux as well as the Mac world of Macintosh computers truly cross platform enabling information exchange and the porting of data among computer platforms for competitiveness reasons and saving money.

Some organisation and many businesses actually a lot of organisations have set ways of working - change can present disruptions. The most tech savvy and the technology world cope with change a lot. Change enables progress, but a lot of organisations may face real issues, complexities from embracing technological change headaches can stem from this also data loss because file conversion is part and parcel of preserving data - also representing data, analysing it, making sense of data can lead to real progress when data is shared with others in meaningful ways such as producing journalistic style articles - actually the best form of journalism is really that based on technology empowerment to help others. This may actually be called technical authoring.

There is also less disputes with technical information since all those in a sector may have a shared background information or a technical grounding in subject matters.

Sharing technical information online was the basis for the development of both the Internet and the World Wide Web - email from Arpanet originally was the basis for information exchange over a military network.

Technical information intertwined with events from history may explain more what has happened and what is happening when timely information is shared - always a real delay in the information world also the same with video sharing with text accompaniment to enhance understanding increase accuracy.

Facebook, the digital world and frustrations really stem from data loss - Facebook social platform where users can request deletion of content and actually some users may delete to keep others happy, keep friends.

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copy cp move also rename mv command, head filename to view top of file key summary information maybe news articles, cd for change directory, also mount to make additional drives with files accessible - also Microsoft PowerShell command line tool for flexibility to build, test, and deploy Windows versions also known as operating systems across a large organisation in an efficient manner

Linux systems actually have quite a few commands to manipulate files also do data back-ups - copying files can seek to preserve data, renaming files can add meaning, but keeping duplicates may add an additional burden to system administration and actually there is the additional chore of data anlysis which takes humans and human effort also ability to analyse data - making sense of data and data ownership is really key for patients actually of health services to better inform and direct patient treatment, so really medical professionals for example listening to patient feedback is really central to improve long term health outcomes with due regards to patient care. This is e-healthcare in a sense, but e-healthcare is also hospitals having easy access to patient records stored at doctor's surgeries.

cp old file name new file name - copying files assists duplicating files making backups.

mv old file name new file name - moving files may mean data loss, need to know where you move a file, need to know be aware of file structure in file system when moving files and Linux through Nautilus the file browser moving files can keep file sizes down and reorganise your files.

mv old filename new filename - this command can also rename files as well as move files.

head filename - shows top part of file, really putting key details first important principle of journalism but stories and story telling may not follow journalistic principles however HTML markup tags can be used to make key points stand out, highligh key points and also make key terms resonate drawing attention to arguments.

head command in Linux actually suited to retrieving information and archive stories written by journalists.

tail filename - useful to view the end of a file, film credits usually come at the end of scripts and film credits also credits for TV programmes can identify people in them such as actors and production assistants.

Linux file systems additional drives actually require to be mounted to access files on them - mounting nowadays may happen in modern Linux operating systems automatically when a user connects a physical device to a computer - Windows calls this capability Plug n Play.

mount - show mounted file systems

date - shows the current date

uptime - shows uptime of a computer or length of time computer has been on or user logged in.

cd .. - go up a directory by one level in a tree like nested folder structure or hierarchy.

ls - Listing of current processes.

Mkdir - Make a new folder or directory

pwd - Present working directory useful to establish user context when in a command driven environment, basic command oriented user interfaces can bring greater flexibility and control also such systems can make good efficient use of older hardware or prolong the life out of computing equipment.

whoami - Show your username on Linux systems also servers, note that nowadays computer servers likely have graphical user interfaces, but actually some may just have a command oriented environment or user interface to really make efficient use out of computing resources, minimise overheads and also overload including reduce energy requirements.

Netcraft shows uptime of Internet web servers shows web browser statistics

In Windows computing the big brand from Microsoft, ren (or rename ) is a command in various command-line interpreters (shells) such as COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe and Windows PowerShell. The ren for rename command is used to rename computer files and in some implementations also directories.

Microsoft PowerShell as a scripting language, PowerShell is commonly used for automating the management of systems. It is also used to build, test, and deploy solutions.

Scheduling Windows tasks

Need to schedule a task - make sure it’s set to run as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM rather than the logged-on user or it will not work. This applies to Windows 7 and also Windows 10.

Backing up user files on Windows Vista also Windows 7 also Windows 10

Need to format a Windows Vista also Windows 7 also Windows 10 computer - back-up data located under username folder for example C:\Users\username. Make sure you show hidden files before backing-up data. This makes sure that Outlook also Thunderbird e-mails get backed up.

Slipstream service packs using the Reverse Integration Method also SysPrep to make set up of computer systems across a large organisation more efficient also SIDs defined Service Identifies for use in ActiveDirectory service to manage resources also users on Microsoft servers also domain controllers

This was a historical procedure that worked with Windows Vista also Windows 7 seven - it might still work with Windows 10 and it involves the System Preparation Tool, which is a means to actually set up a version of Windows 7 seven for example with service packs embedded. Virtual operating systems using for example Oracle Virtual Box running on one single host computer system could be used to run a dual boot configuration of Windows Vista or Windows 7 seven with the view to embedding service packs also known as slipstreaming for efficient deployment of a version of Windows such as Windows Vista also Windows 7 seven. Slipstreaming service packs to create DVD ISO images makes deploying computer systems across organisations also enterprises very efficient - creating a DVD ISO with service packs embedded or up-to-date computer system updates makes set up of computer systems more efficient.

Sysprep (System Preparation Tool) Sysprep is Microsoft's System Preparation tool intended to duplicate, test and deliver new installations for the Windows operating system based on an established installation. It is a command-line tool that can be run manually or through a script.

Sysprep is used to clone an existing Windows installation across multiple computer system set ups in an organisation. Cloning Microsoft Windows without first running Sysprep would be problematic because Windows 10, Windows Server and other versions of Microsoft Windows include security identifiers (SIDs) that must be unique from one computer to the next.

SID (Security Identifier) is a unique id number assigned to each user on a windows computer, group or computer on domain-controlled network. You can get current user SID in Active Directory using PowerShell Get-LocalUser.

Reverse Integration Method